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Lowenstein Pedro

Title(s)Professor, Medicine
Phone(310) 423-7308
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Neuroimmunology of Malignant Brain Tumors: Innate Mechanisms
    NIH/NINDS R01NS096756Feb 15, 2016 - Jan 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Inhibiting glioma invasion using targeted nanoparticles
    NIH/NINDS R21NS084275Jul 1, 2013 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of glioma growth and invasion novel therapeutic strategies
    NIH/NINDS R01NS082311Apr 1, 2013 - Mar 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Brain immune responses:Cellular &Molecular Mechanisms
    NIH/NINDS R01NS061107Aug 15, 2008 - Jul 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Gene Therapy and the Brain: Neuroimmune Interactions
    NIH/NINDS R01NS054193Feb 1, 2007 - Jan 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Gene Therapy for Glioma
    NIH/NINDS R21NS047298Sep 30, 2003 - May 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Gene Therapy for Neurological Diseases
    NIH/NINDS R01NS042893Sep 1, 2002 - Aug 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Scheetz L, Park KS, Li Q, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG, Schwendeman A, Moon JJ. Engineering patient-specific cancer immunotherapies. Nat Biomed Eng. 2019 Oct; 3(10):768-782. PMID: 31406259.
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    2. Núñez FJ, Mendez FM, Kadiyala P, Alghamri MS, Savelieff MG, Garcia-Fabiani MB, Haase S, Koschmann C, Calinescu AA, Kamran N, Saxena M, Patel R, Carney S, Guo MZ, Edwards M, Ljungman M, Qin T, Sartor MA, Tagett R, Venneti S, Brosnan-Cashman J, Meeker A, Gorbunova V, Zhao L, Kremer DM, Zhang L, Lyssiotis CA, Jones L, Herting CJ, Ross JL, Hambardzumyan D, Hervey-Jumper S, Figueroa ME, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. IDH1-R132H acts as a tumor suppressor in glioma via epigenetic up-regulation of the DNA damage response. Sci Transl Med. 2019 02 13; 11(479). PMID: 30760578.
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    3. Kadiyala P, Li D, Nuñez FM, Altshuler D, Doherty R, Kuai R, Yu M, Kamran N, Edwards M, Moon JJ, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG, Schwendeman A. High-Density Lipoprotein-Mimicking Nanodiscs for Chemo-immunotherapy against Glioblastoma Multiforme. ACS Nano. 2019 Feb 26; 13(2):1365-1384. PMID: 30721028.
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    4. Núñez FJ, Mendez FM, Garcia-Fabiani MB, Pardo J, Edwards M, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Evaluation of Biomarkers in Glioma by Immunohistochemistry on Paraffin-Embedded 3D Glioma Neurosphere Cultures. J Vis Exp. 2019 Jan 09; (143). PMID: 30688315.
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    5. Haase S, Garcia-Fabiani MB, Carney S, Altshuler D, Núñez FJ, Méndez FM, Núñez F, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Mutant ATRX: uncovering a new therapeutic target for glioma. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2018 07; 22(7):599-613. PMID: 29889582.
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    6. Kamran N, Alghamri MS, Nunez FJ, Shah D, Asad AS, Candolfi M, Altshuler D, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Current state and future prospects of immunotherapy for glioma. Immunotherapy. 2018 02 01; 10(4):317-339. PMID: 29421984.
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    7. Mendez FM, Núñez FJ, Zorrilla-Veloz RI, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Native Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Using Murine Brain Tumor Neurospheres. J Vis Exp. 2018 01 29; (131). PMID: 29443090.
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    8. Kamran N, Li Y, Sierra M, Alghamri MS, Kadiyala P, Appelman HD, Edwards M, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Melanoma induced immunosuppression is mediated by hematopoietic dysregulation. Oncoimmunology. 2018; 7(3):e1408750. PMID: 29399415.
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    9. Koschmann C, Farooqui Z, Kasaian K, Cao X, Zamler D, Stallard S, Venneti S, Hervey-Jumper S, Garton H, Muraszko K, Franchi L, Robertson PL, Leonard M, Opipari V, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR, Chinnaiyan A, Mody R. Multi-focal sequencing of a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma establishes PTEN loss as an early event. NPJ Precis Oncol. 2017; 1(1):32. PMID: 29872713.
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    10. Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Evolutionary basis of a new gene- and immune-therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant brain tumors: from mice to clinical trials for glioma patients. Clin Immunol. 2018 04; 189:43-51. PMID: 28720549.
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    11. Chandran M, Candolfi M, Shah D, Mineharu Y, Yadav VN, Koschmann C, Asad AS, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Single vs. combination immunotherapeutic strategies for glioma. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2017 05; 17(5):543-554. PMID: 28286975.
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    12. Ashley SL, Pretto CD, Stier MT, Kadiyala P, Castro-Jorge L, Hsu TH, Doherty R, Carnahan KE, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR, Spindler KR. Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Infections by an Encephalitic Virus, Mouse Adenovirus Type 1. J Virol. 2017 03 15; 91(6). PMID: 28053109.
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    13. Koschmann C, Nunez FJ, Mendez F, Brosnan-Cashman JA, Meeker AK, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Mutated Chromatin Regulatory Factors as Tumor Drivers in Cancer. Cancer Res. 2017 01 15; 77(2):227-233. PMID: 28062403.
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    14. Kamran N, Kadiyala P, Saxena M, Candolfi M, Li Y, Moreno-Ayala MA, Raja N, Shah D, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Immunosuppressive Myeloid Cells' Blockade in the Glioma Microenvironment Enhances the Efficacy of Immune-Stimulatory Gene Therapy. Mol Ther. 2017 01 04; 25(1):232-248. PMID: 28129117.
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    15. Yadav VN, Zamler D, Baker GJ, Kadiyala P, Erdreich-Epstein A, DeCarvalho AC, Mikkelsen T, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. CXCR4 increases in-vivo glioma perivascular invasion, and reduces radiation induced apoptosis: A genetic knockdown study. Oncotarget. 2016 12 13; 7(50):83701-83719. PMID: 27863376.
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    16. Schubert M, Breakefield X, Federoff H, Frederickson RM, Lowenstein PR. Gene Delivery to the Nervous System: NINDS Workshop on Gene Delivery to the Nervous System Washington, DC, 12-13 November 2007. Mol Ther. 2008 Apr; 16(4):640-646. PMID: 28178462.
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    17. King GD, Kroeger KM, Bresee CJ, Candolfi M, Liu C, Manalo CM, Muhammad AG, Pechnick RN, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Flt3L in Combination With HSV1-TK-mediated Gene Therapy Reverses Brain Tumor-induced Behavioral Deficits. Mol Ther. 2008 Apr; 16(4):682-690. PMID: 28178463.
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    18. Kamran N, Chandran M, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Immature myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment: Implications for immunotherapy. Clin Immunol. 2018 04; 189:34-42. PMID: 27777083.
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    19. Koschmann C, Zamler D, MacKay A, Robinson D, Wu YM, Doherty R, Marini B, Tran D, Garton H, Muraszko K, Robertson P, Leonard M, Zhao L, Bixby D, Peterson L, Camelo-Piragua S, Jones C, Mody R, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Characterizing and targeting PDGFRA alterations in pediatric high-grade glioma. Oncotarget. 2016 Oct 04; 7(40):65696-65706. PMID: 27582545.
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    20. Wilson TJ, Zamler DB, Doherty R, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Reversibility of glioma stem cells' phenotypes explains their complex in vitro and in vivo behavior: Discovery of a novel neurosphere-specific enzyme, cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1, using the genomic landscape of human glioma stem cells as a discovery tool. Oncotarget. 2016 09 27; 7(39):63020-63041. PMID: 27564115.
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    21. Calinescu AA, Yadav VN, Carballo E, Kadiyala P, Tran D, Zamler DB, Doherty R, Srikanth M, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Survival and Proliferation of Neural Progenitor-Derived Glioblastomas Under Hypoxic Stress is Controlled by a CXCL12/CXCR4 Autocrine-Positive Feedback Mechanism. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Mar 01; 23(5):1250-1262. PMID: 27542769.
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    22. Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Multiple Expressed Endogenous Glioma Epitopes as Novel Vaccines for Gliomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 10 01; 22(19):4760-4762. PMID: 27521444.
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    23. Kamran N, Calinescu A, Candolfi M, Chandran M, Mineharu Y, Asad AS, Koschmann C, Nunez FJ, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Recent advances and future of immunotherapy for glioblastoma. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2016 10; 16(10):1245-64. PMID: 27411023.
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    24. VanderVeen N, Raja N, Yi E, Appelman H, Ng P, Palmer D, Zamler D, Dzaman M, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Preclinical Efficacy and Safety Profile of Allometrically Scaled Doses of Doxycycline Used to Turn "On" Therapeutic Transgene Expression from High-Capacity Adenoviral Vectors in a Glioma Model. Hum Gene Ther Methods. 2016 06; 27(3):98-111. PMID: 27056322.
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    25. Koschmann C, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. ATRX mutations and glioblastoma: Impaired DNA damage repair, alternative lengthening of telomeres, and genetic instability. Mol Cell Oncol. 2016 May; 3(3):e1167158. PMID: 27314101.
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    26. Baker GJ, Chockley P, Zamler D, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Natural killer cells require monocytic Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells to eradicate orthotopically engrafted glioma cells. Oncoimmunology. 2016 Jun; 5(6):e1163461. PMID: 27471637.
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    27. Koschmann C, Calinescu AA, Nunez FJ, Mackay A, Fazal-Salom J, Thomas D, Mendez F, Kamran N, Dzaman M, Mulpuri L, Krasinkiewicz J, Doherty R, Lemons R, Brosnan-Cashman JA, Li Y, Roh S, Zhao L, Appelman H, Ferguson D, Gorbunova V, Meeker A, Jones C, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. ATRX loss promotes tumor growth and impairs nonhomologous end joining DNA repair in glioma. Sci Transl Med. 2016 Mar 02; 8(328):328ra28. PMID: 26936505.
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    28. Kamran N, Candolfi M, Baker GJ, Ayala MM, Dzaman M, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Neurological Disorders: Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Methods Mol Biol. 2016; 1382:467-82. PMID: 26611605.
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    29. Baker GJ, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Isolation and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Glioma-infiltrating Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. J Vis Exp. 2015 Nov 28; (105). PMID: 26650233.
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    30. Calinescu AA, Núñez FJ, Koschmann C, Kolb BL, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Transposon mediated integration of plasmid DNA into the subventricular zone of neonatal mice to generate novel models of glioblastoma. J Vis Exp. 2015 Feb 22; (96). PMID: 25741859.
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    31. Calinescu AA, Kamran N, Baker G, Mineharu Y, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Overview of current immunotherapeutic strategies for glioma. Immunotherapy. 2015; 7(10):1073-104. PMID: 26598957.
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    32. Lowenstein PR, Baker GJ, Castro MG. Cracking the glioma-NK inhibitory code: toward successful innate immunotherapy. Oncoimmunology. 2014 Nov; 3(11):e965573. PMID: 25941594.
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    33. Kepp O, Senovilla L, Vitale I, Vacchelli E, Adjemian S, Agostinis P, Apetoh L, Aranda F, Barnaba V, Bloy N, Bracci L, Breckpot K, Brough D, Buqué A, Castro MG, Cirone M, Colombo MI, Cremer I, Demaria S, Dini L, Eliopoulos AG, Faggioni A, Formenti SC, Fucíková J, Gabriele L, Gaipl US, Galon J, Garg A, Ghiringhelli F, Giese NA, Guo ZS, Hemminki A, Herrmann M, Hodge JW, Holdenrieder S, Honeychurch J, Hu HM, Huang X, Illidge TM, Kono K, Korbelik M, Krysko DV, Loi S, Lowenstein PR, Lugli E, Ma Y, Madeo F, Manfredi AA, Martins I, Mavilio D, Menger L, Merendino N, Michaud M, Mignot G, Mossman KL, Multhoff G, Oehler R, Palombo F, Panaretakis T, Pol J, Proietti E, Ricci JE, Riganti C, Rovere-Querini P, Rubartelli A, Sistigu A, Smyth MJ, Sonnemann J, Spisek R, Stagg J, Sukkurwala AQ, Tartour E, Thorburn A, Thorne SH, Vandenabeele P, Velotti F, Workenhe ST, Yang H, Zong WX, Zitvogel L, Kroemer G, Galluzzi L. Consensus guidelines for the detection of immunogenic cell death. Oncoimmunology. 2014 Oct; 3(9):e955691. PMID: 25941621.
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    34. Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Glioma trials and viral tribulations: can anything be concluded from non-controlled trials? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015 Feb; 86(2):125. PMID: 25280917.
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    35. Mineharu Y, Kamran N, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Blockade of mTOR signaling via rapamycin combined with immunotherapy augments antiglioma cytotoxic and memory T-cell functions. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 Dec; 13(12):3024-36. PMID: 25256739.
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    36. Baker GJ, Chockley P, Yadav VN, Doherty R, Ritt M, Sivaramakrishnan S, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Natural killer cells eradicate galectin-1-deficient glioma in the absence of adaptive immunity. Cancer Res. 2014 Sep 15; 74(18):5079-90. PMID: 25038230.
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    37. Baker GJ, Yadav VN, Motsch S, Koschmann C, Calinescu AA, Mineharu Y, Camelo-Piragua SI, Orringer D, Bannykh S, Nichols WS, deCarvalho AC, Mikkelsen T, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Mechanisms of glioma formation: iterative perivascular glioma growth and invasion leads to tumor progression, VEGF-independent vascularization, and resistance to antiangiogenic therapy. Neoplasia. 2014 Jul; 16(7):543-61. PMID: 25117977.
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    38. Lynes J, Wibowo M, Koschmann C, Baker GJ, Saxena V, Muhammad AK, Bondale N, Klein J, Assi H, Lieberman AP, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Lentiviral-induced high-grade gliomas in rats: the effects of PDGFB, HRAS-G12V, AKT, and IDH1-R132H. Neurotherapeutics. 2014 Jul; 11(3):623-35. PMID: 24752661.
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    39. Castro MG, Baker GJ, Lowenstein PR. Blocking immunosuppressive checkpoints for glioma therapy: the more the Merrier! Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Oct 15; 20(20):5147-9. PMID: 24879798.
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    40. Assi H, Espinosa J, Suprise S, Sofroniew M, Doherty R, Zamler D, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Assessing the role of STAT3 in DC differentiation and autologous DC immunotherapy in mouse models of GBM. PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e96318. PMID: 24806510.
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    41. Castro MG, Candolfi M, Wilson TJ, Calinescu A, Paran C, Kamran N, Koschmann C, Moreno-Ayala MA, Assi H, Lowenstein PR. Adenoviral vector-mediated gene therapy for gliomas: coming of age. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2014 Sep; 14(9):1241-57. PMID: 24773178.
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    42. Assi HH, Paran C, VanderVeen N, Savakus J, Doherty R, Petruzzella E, Hoeschele JD, Appelman H, Raptis L, Mikkelsen T, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Preclinical characterization of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 small molecule inhibitors for primary and metastatic brain cancer therapy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014 Jun; 349(3):458-69. PMID: 24696041.
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    43. Candolfi M, Yagiz K, Wibowo M, Ahlzadeh GE, Puntel M, Ghiasi H, Kamran N, Paran C, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Temozolomide does not impair gene therapy-mediated antitumor immunity in syngeneic brain tumor models. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Mar 15; 20(6):1555-1565. PMID: 24501391.
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    44. VanderVeen N, Paran C, Appelhans A, Krasinkiewicz J, Lemons R, Appelman H, Doherty R, Palmer D, Ng P, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Marmosets as a preclinical model for testing "off-label" use of doxycycline to turn on Flt3L expression from high-capacity adenovirus vectors. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev. 2014 Feb 05; 1. PMID: 25068145.
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    45. Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. The value of EGFRvIII as the target for glioma vaccines. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2014; 42-50. PMID: 24857059.
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    46. Mineharu Y, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR, Sakai N, Miyamoto S. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for glioma: multiple regimens and implications in clinical trials. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2013; 53(11):741-54. PMID: 24140772.
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    47. Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Neuro-oncology: The long and winding road--gene therapy for glioma. Nat Rev Neurol. 2013 Nov; 9(11):609-10. PMID: 24061435.
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    48. VanderVeen N, Paran C, Krasinkiewicz J, Zhao L, Palmer D, Hervey-Jumper S, Ng P, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Effectiveness and preclinical safety profile of doxycycline to be used "off-label" to induce therapeutic transgene expression in a phase I clinical trial for glioma. Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev. 2013 Sep; 24(3):116-26. PMID: 24007469.
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    49. Simonato M, Bennett J, Boulis NM, Castro MG, Fink DJ, Goins WF, Gray SJ, Lowenstein PR, Vandenberghe LH, Wilson TJ, Wolfe JH, Glorioso JC. Progress in gene therapy for neurological disorders. Nat Rev Neurol. 2013 May; 9(5):277-91. PMID: 23609618.
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    50. Puntel M, A K M GM, Farrokhi C, Vanderveen N, Paran C, Appelhans A, Kroeger KM, Salem A, Lacayo L, Pechnick RN, Kelson KR, Kaur S, Kennedy S, Palmer D, Ng P, Liu C, Krasinkiewicz J, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Safety profile, efficacy, and biodistribution of a bicistronic high-capacity adenovirus vector encoding a combined immunostimulation and cytotoxic gene therapy as a prelude to a phase I clinical trial for glioblastoma. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 May 01; 268(3):318-30. PMID: 23403069.
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    51. Mineharu Y, Muhammad AK, Yagiz K, Candolfi M, Kroeger KM, Xiong W, Puntel M, Liu C, Levy E, Lugo C, Kocharian A, Allison JP, Curran MA, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Gene therapy-mediated reprogramming tumor infiltrating T cells using IL-2 and inhibiting NF-?B signaling improves the efficacy of immunotherapy in a brain cancer model. Neurotherapeutics. 2012 Oct; 9(4):827-43. PMID: 22996231.
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    52. Muhammad AK, Xiong W, Puntel M, Farrokhi C, Kroeger KM, Salem A, Lacayo L, Pechnick RN, Kelson KR, Palmer D, Ng P, Liu C, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Safety profile of gutless adenovirus vectors delivered into the normal brain parenchyma: implications for a glioma phase 1 clinical trial. Hum Gene Ther Methods. 2012 Aug; 23(4):271-84. PMID: 22950971.
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    53. Assi H, Candolfi M, Baker G, Mineharu Y, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Gene therapy for brain tumors: basic developments and clinical implementation. Neurosci Lett. 2012 Oct 11; 527(2):71-7. PMID: 22906921.
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    54. Candolfi M, King GD, Yagiz K, Curtin JF, Mineharu Y, Muhammad AK, Foulad D, Kroeger KM, Barnett N, Josien R, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the tumor microenvironment: immune targets for glioma therapeutics. Neoplasia. 2012 Aug; 14(8):757-70. PMID: 22952428.
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    55. Sanderson NS, Puntel M, Kroeger KM, Bondale NS, Swerdlow M, Iranmanesh N, Yagita H, Ibrahim A, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Cytotoxic immunological synapses do not restrict the action of interferon-? to antigenic target cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 15; 109(20):7835-40. PMID: 22547816.
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    56. Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Pushing the limits of glioma resection using electrophysiologic brain mapping. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jul 10; 30(20):2437-40. PMID: 22529267.
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    57. Assi H, Candolfi M, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Rodent Glioma Models: Intracranial Stereotactic Allografts and Xenografts. Neuromethods. 2012; 77:229-243. PMID: 31462854.
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    58. Zirger JM, Puntel M, Bergeron J, Wibowo M, Moridzadeh R, Bondale N, Barcia C, Kroeger KM, Liu C, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Immune-mediated loss of transgene expression from virally transduced brain cells is irreversible, mediated by IFN?, perforin, and TNFa, and due to the elimination of transduced cells. Mol Ther. 2012 Apr; 20(4):808-19. PMID: 22233583.
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    59. Candolfi M, Curtin JF, Yagiz K, Assi H, Wibowo MK, Alzadeh GE, Foulad D, Muhammad AK, Salehi S, Keech N, Puntel M, Liu C, Sanderson NR, Kroeger KM, Dunn R, Martins G, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. B cells are critical to T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity induced by a combined immune-stimulatory/conditionally cytotoxic therapy for glioblastoma. Neoplasia. 2011 Oct; 13(10):947-60. PMID: 22028620.
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    60. Candolfi M, Kroeger KM, Xiong W, Liu C, Puntel M, Yagiz K, Muhammad AG, Mineharu Y, Foulad D, Wibowo M, Assi H, Baker GJ, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Targeted toxins for glioblastoma multiforme: pre-clinical studies and clinical implementation. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2011 Oct; 11(8):729-38. PMID: 21707497.
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    61. Puntel M, Barrett R, Sanderson NS, Kroeger KM, Bondale N, Wibowo M, Kennedy S, Liu C, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Identification and visualization of CD8+ T cell mediated IFN-? signaling in target cells during an antiviral immune response in the brain. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23523. PMID: 21897844.
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    62. Castro MG, Candolfi M, Kroeger K, King GD, Curtin JF, Yagiz K, Mineharu Y, Assi H, Wibowo M, Ghulam Muhammad AK, Foulad D, Puntel M, Lowenstein PR. Gene therapy and targeted toxins for glioma. Curr Gene Ther. 2011 Jun; 11(3):155-80. PMID: 21453286.
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    63. Mineharu Y, King GD, Muhammad AK, Bannykh S, Kroeger KM, Liu C, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Engineering the brain tumor microenvironment enhances the efficacy of dendritic cell vaccination: implications for clinical trial design. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Jul 15; 17(14):4705-18. PMID: 21632862.
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    64. Flotte TR, Frederickson RM, Lowenstein PR, Mueller C. Moving forward toward a cure for Parkinson's: neuropathology of the nigrostriatal pathway determines the location of growth factor delivery. Mol Ther. 2011 May; 19(5):827-9. PMID: 21532611.
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    65. King GD, Muhammad AK, Larocque D, Kelson KR, Xiong W, Liu C, Sanderson NS, Kroeger KM, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Combined Flt3L/TK gene therapy induces immunological surveillance which mediates an immune response against a surrogate brain tumor neoantigen. Mol Ther. 2011 Oct; 19(10):1793-801. PMID: 21505426.
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    66. Mandel RJ, Lowenstein PR, Byrne BJ. AAV6-mediated gene silencing fALS short. Mol Ther. 2011 Feb; 19(2):231-3. PMID: 21289637.
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    67. Candolfi M, Xiong W, Yagiz K, Liu C, Muhammad AK, Puntel M, Foulad D, Zadmehr A, Ahlzadeh GE, Kroeger KM, Tesarfreund M, Lee S, Debinski W, Sareen D, Svendsen CN, Rodriguez R, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Gene therapy-mediated delivery of targeted cytotoxins for glioma therapeutics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Nov 16; 107(46):20021-6. PMID: 21030678.
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    68. Lowenstein PR. Cancer vaccines in glioma: how to balance the challenges of small trials, efficiency, and potential adverse events. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Nov 01; 28(31):4670-3. PMID: 20921460.
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    69. Kroeger KM, Muhammad AK, Baker GJ, Assi H, Wibowo MK, Xiong W, Yagiz K, Candolfi M, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Gene therapy and virotherapy: novel therapeutic approaches for brain tumors. Discov Med. 2010 Oct; 10(53):293-304. PMID: 21034670.
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    70. Larocque D, Sanderson NS, Bergeron J, Curtin JF, Girton J, Wibowo M, Bondale N, Kroeger KM, Yang J, Lacayo LM, Reyes KC, Farrokhi C, Pechnick RN, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Exogenous fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand overrides brain immune privilege and facilitates recognition of a neo-antigen without causing autoimmune neuropathology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 10; 107(32):14443-8. PMID: 20660723.
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    71. Xiong W, Candolfi M, Liu C, Muhammad AK, Yagiz K, Puntel M, Moore PF, Avalos J, Young JD, Khan D, Donelson R, Pluhar GE, Ohlfest JR, Wawrowsky K, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Human Flt3L generates dendritic cells from canine peripheral blood precursors: implications for a dog glioma clinical trial. PLoS One. 2010 Jun 11; 5(6):e11074. PMID: 20552015.
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    72. Puntel M, Muhammad AK, Candolfi M, Salem A, Yagiz K, Farrokhi C, Kroeger KM, Xiong W, Curtin JF, Liu C, Bondale NS, Lerner J, Pechnick RN, Palmer D, Ng P, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. A novel bicistronic high-capacity gutless adenovirus vector that drives constitutive expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and tet-inducible expression of Flt3L for glioma therapeutics. J Virol. 2010 Jun; 84(12):6007-17. PMID: 20375153.
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    73. Pluhar GE, Grogan PT, Seiler C, Goulart M, Santacruz KS, Carlson C, Chen W, Olin MR, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG, Haines SJ, Ohlfest JR. Anti-tumor immune response correlates with neurological symptoms in a dog with spontaneous astrocytoma treated by gene and vaccine therapy. Vaccine. 2010 Apr 26; 28(19):3371-8. PMID: 20197146.
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    74. Puntel M, Kroeger KM, Sanderson NS, Thomas CE, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Gene transfer into rat brain using adenoviral vectors. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2010 Jan; Chapter 4:Unit 4.24. PMID: 20066657.
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    75. Lowenstein PR. Risk in clinical research: size matters! Mol Ther. 2009 Nov; 17(11):1833-4. PMID: 19876046.
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    76. Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Uncertainty in the translation of preclinical experiments to clinical trials. Why do most phase III clinical trials fail? Curr Gene Ther. 2009 Oct; 9(5):368-74. PMID: 19860651.
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    77. Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Gene therapy continues to make progress: clinical and regulatory perspectives. Curr Gene Ther. 2009 Oct; 9(5):327-8. PMID: 19860647.
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    79. Candolfi M, Kroeger KM, Muhammad AK, Yagiz K, Farrokhi C, Pechnick RN, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Gene therapy for brain cancer: combination therapies provide enhanced efficacy and safety. Curr Gene Ther. 2009 Oct; 9(5):409-21. PMID: 19860655.
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    80. Ghulam Muhammad AK, Candolfi M, King GD, Yagiz K, Foulad D, Mineharu Y, Kroeger KM, Treuer KA, Nichols WS, Sanderson NS, Yang J, Khayznikov M, Van Rooijen N, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Antiglioma immunological memory in response to conditional cytotoxic/immune-stimulatory gene therapy: humoral and cellular immunity lead to tumor regression. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Oct 01; 15(19):6113-27. PMID: 19789315.
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    81. Vit JP, Ohara PT, Sundberg C, Rubi B, Maechler P, Liu C, Puntel M, Lowenstein P, Castro M, Jasmin L. Adenovector GAD65 gene delivery into the rat trigeminal ganglion produces orofacial analgesia. Mol Pain. 2009 Aug 05; 5:42. PMID: 19656360.
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    82. Barcia C, Gómez A, Gallego-Sanchez JM, Perez-Vallés A, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR, Barcia C, Herrero MT. Infiltrating CTLs in human glioblastoma establish immunological synapses with tumorigenic cells. Am J Pathol. 2009 Aug; 175(2):786-98. PMID: 19628762.
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    83. Candolfi M, Yagiz K, Foulad D, Alzadeh GE, Tesarfreund M, Muhammad AK, Puntel M, Kroeger KM, Liu C, Lee S, Curtin JF, King GD, Lerner J, Sato K, Mineharu Y, Xiong W, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Release of HMGB1 in response to proapoptotic glioma killing strategies: efficacy and neurotoxicity. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Jul 01; 15(13):4401-14. PMID: 19570774.
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    84. Curtin JF, Liu N, Candolfi M, Xiong W, Assi H, Yagiz K, Edwards MR, Michelsen KS, Kroeger KM, Liu C, Muhammad AK, Clark MC, Arditi M, Comin-Anduix B, Ribas A, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. HMGB1 mediates endogenous TLR2 activation and brain tumor regression. PLoS Med. 2009 Jan 13; 6(1):e10. PMID: 19143470.
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    85. Lowenstein PR. Crossing the rubicon. Nat Biotechnol. 2009 Jan; 27(1):42-4. PMID: 19131996.
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    86. Lowenstein PR. A call for physiopathological ethics. Mol Ther. 2008 Nov; 16(11):1771-2. PMID: 18956015.
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    87. Southgate T, Kroeger KM, Liu C, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Gene transfer into neural cells in vitro using adenoviral vectors. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2008 Oct; Chapter 4:Unit 4.23. PMID: 18972378.
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    88. Lowenstein PR. Clinical trials in gene therapy: ethics of informed consent and the future of experimental medicine. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2008 Oct; 10(5):428-30. PMID: 18830917.
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    89. Barcia C, Sanderson NS, Barrett RJ, Wawrowsky K, Kroeger KM, Puntel M, Liu C, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. T cells' immunological synapses induce polarization of brain astrocytes in vivo and in vitro: a novel astrocyte response mechanism to cellular injury. PLoS One. 2008 Aug 20; 3(8):e2977. PMID: 18714338.
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    90. Barcia C, Gomez A, de Pablos V, Fernández-Villalba E, Liu C, Kroeger KM, Martín J, Barreiro AF, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR, Herrero MT. CD20, CD3, and CD40 ligand microclusters segregate three-dimensionally in vivo at B-cell-T-cell immunological synapses after viral immunity in primate brain. J Virol. 2008 Oct; 82(20):9978-93. PMID: 18684835.
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    91. Lowenstein PR. With a little help from my f(X)riends!: the basis of Ad5-mediated transduction of the liver revealed. Mol Ther. 2008 Jun; 16(6):1004-6. PMID: 18500239.
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    92. Curtin JF, Candolfi M, Fakhouri TM, Liu C, Alden A, Edwards M, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Treg depletion inhibits efficacy of cancer immunotherapy: implications for clinical trials. PLoS One. 2008 Apr 23; 3(4):e1983. PMID: 18431473.
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    93. Schubert M, Breakefield X, Federoff H, Frederickson RM, Lowenstein PR. Gene delivery to the nervous system. Mol Ther. 2008 Apr; 16(4):640-6. PMID: 18362921.
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    94. Curtin JF, Candolfi M, Xiong W, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Turning the gene tap off; implications of regulating gene expression for cancer therapeutics. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Mar; 7(3):439-48. PMID: 18347132.
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    95. King GD, Muhammad AK, Xiong W, Kroeger KM, Puntel M, Larocque D, Palmer D, Ng P, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. High-capacity adenovirus vector-mediated anti-glioma gene therapy in the presence of systemic antiadenovirus immunity. J Virol. 2008 May; 82(9):4680-4. PMID: 18287240.
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    96. King GD, Kroeger KM, Bresee CJ, Candolfi M, Liu C, Manalo CM, Muhammad AK, Pechnick RN, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Flt3L in combination with HSV1-TK-mediated gene therapy reverses brain tumor-induced behavioral deficits. Mol Ther. 2008 Apr; 16(4):682-90. PMID: 18283279.
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    97. Barcia C, Wawrowsky K, Barrett RJ, Liu C, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. In vivo polarization of IFN-gamma at Kupfer and non-Kupfer immunological synapses during the clearance of virally infected brain cells. J Immunol. 2008 Feb 01; 180(3):1344-52. PMID: 18209028.
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    98. Xiong W, Candolfi M, Kroeger KM, Puntel M, Mondkar S, Larocque D, Liu C, Curtin JF, Palmer D, Ng P, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Immunization against the transgene but not the TetON switch reduces expression from gutless adenoviral vectors in the brain. Mol Ther. 2008 Feb; 16(2):343-51. PMID: 18180781.
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    99. Curtin JF, Candolfi M, Puntel M, Xiong W, Muhammad AK, Kroeger K, Mondkar S, Liu C, Bondale N, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Regulated expression of adenoviral vectors-based gene therapies: therapeutic expression of toxins and immune-modulators. Methods Mol Biol. 2008; 434:239-66. PMID: 18470649.
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    100. King GD, Muhammad AK, Curtin JF, Barcia C, Puntel M, Liu C, Honig SB, Candolfi M, Mondkar S, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Flt3L and TK gene therapy eradicate multifocal glioma in a syngeneic glioblastoma model. Neuro Oncol. 2008 Feb; 10(1):19-31. PMID: 18079358.
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    101. Lowenstein PR, Mandel RJ, Xiong WD, Kroeger K, Castro MG. Immune responses to adenovirus and adeno-associated vectors used for gene therapy of brain diseases: the role of immunological synapses in understanding the cell biology of neuroimmune interactions. Curr Gene Ther. 2007 Oct; 7(5):347-60. PMID: 17979681.
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    102. Lowenstein PR, Kroeger K, Castro MG. Immunology of neurological gene therapy: how T cells modulate viral vector-mediated therapeutic transgene expression through immunological synapses. Neurotherapeutics. 2007 Oct; 4(4):715-24. PMID: 17920552.
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    103. Barcia C, Jimenez-Dalmaroni M, Kroeger KM, Puntel M, Rapaport AJ, Larocque D, King GD, Johnson SA, Liu C, Xiong W, Candolfi M, Mondkar S, Ng P, Palmer D, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. One-year expression from high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the brains of animals with pre-existing anti-adenoviral immunity: clinical implications. Mol Ther. 2007 Dec; 15(12):2154-63. PMID: 17895861.
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    104. Candolfi M, Curtin JF, Nichols WS, Muhammad AG, King GD, Pluhar GE, McNiel EA, Ohlfest JR, Freese AB, Moore PF, Lerner J, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Intracranial glioblastoma models in preclinical neuro-oncology: neuropathological characterization and tumor progression. J Neurooncol. 2007 Nov; 85(2):133-48. PMID: 17874037.
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    105. Oh S, Odland R, Wilson SR, Kroeger KM, Liu C, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG, Hall WA, Ohlfest JR. Improved distribution of small molecules and viral vectors in the murine brain using a hollow fiber catheter. J Neurosurg. 2007 Sep; 107(3):568-77. PMID: 17886557.
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    106. Oh S, Pluhar GE, McNeil EA, Kroeger KM, Liu C, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR, Freese A, Ohlfest JR. Efficacy of nonviral gene transfer in the canine brain. J Neurosurg. 2007 Jul; 107(1):136-44. PMID: 17639883.
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    107. Candolfi M, Pluhar GE, Kroeger K, Puntel M, Curtin J, Barcia C, Muhammad AK, Xiong W, Liu C, Mondkar S, Kuoy W, Kang T, McNeil EA, Freese AB, Ohlfest JR, Moore P, Palmer D, Ng P, Young JD, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Optimization of adenoviral vector-mediated transgene expression in the canine brain in vivo, and in canine glioma cells in vitro. Neuro Oncol. 2007 Jul; 9(3):245-58. PMID: 17522335.
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    108. Candolfi M, Kroeger KM, Pluhar GE, Bergeron J, Puntel M, Curtin JF, McNiel EA, Freese AB, Ohlfest JR, Moore P, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer into the canine brain in vivo. Neurosurgery. 2007 Jan; 60(1):167-77; discussion 178. PMID: 17228266.
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    109. Barcia C, Gerdes C, Xiong WD, Thomas CE, Liu C, Kroeger KM, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Immunological thresholds in neurological gene therapy: highly efficient elimination of transduced cells might be related to the specific formation of immunological synapses between T cells and virus-infected brain cells. Neuron Glia Biol. 2006 Nov; 2(4):309-22. PMID: 18084640.
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    110. Barcia C, Thomas CE, Curtin JF, King GD, Wawrowsky K, Candolfi M, Xiong WD, Liu C, Kroeger K, Boyer O, Kupiec-Weglinski J, Klatzmann D, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. In vivo mature immunological synapses forming SMACs mediate clearance of virally infected astrocytes from the brain. J Exp Med. 2006 Sep 04; 203(9):2095-107. PMID: 16923851.
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    111. Candolfi M, Curtin JF, Xiong WD, Kroeger KM, Liu C, Rentsendorj A, Agadjanian H, Medina-Kauwe L, Palmer D, Ng P, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Effective high-capacity gutless adenoviral vectors mediate transgene expression in human glioma cells. Mol Ther. 2006 Sep; 14(3):371-81. PMID: 16798098.
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    112. Zirger JM, Barcia C, Liu C, Puntel M, Mitchell N, Campbell I, Castro M, Lowenstein PR. Rapid upregulation of interferon-regulated and chemokine mRNAs upon injection of 108 international units, but not lower doses, of adenoviral vectors into the brain. J Virol. 2006 Jun; 80(11):5655-9. PMID: 16699048.
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    113. Curtin JF, King GD, Barcia C, Liu C, Hubert FX, Guillonneau C, Josien R, Anegon I, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand recruits plasmacytoid dendritic cells to the brain. J Immunol. 2006 Mar 15; 176(6):3566-77. PMID: 16517725.
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    114. Zirger JM, Liu C, Barcia C, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Immune regulation of transgene expression in the brain: B cells regulate an early phase of elimination of transgene expression from adenoviral vectors. Viral Immunol. 2006; 19(3):508-17. PMID: 16987068.
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    115. Xiong W, Goverdhana S, Sciascia SA, Candolfi M, Zirger JM, Barcia C, Curtin JF, King GD, Jaita G, Liu C, Kroeger K, Agadjanian H, Medina-Kauwe L, Palmer D, Ng P, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Regulatable gutless adenovirus vectors sustain inducible transgene expression in the brain in the presence of an immune response against adenoviruses. J Virol. 2006 Jan; 80(1):27-37. PMID: 16352528.
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    116. Jacobs AH, Winkler A, Castro MG, Lowenstein P. Human gene therapy and imaging in neurological diseases. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2005 Dec; 32 Suppl 2:S358-83. PMID: 16328505.
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    117. King GD, Curtin JF, Candolfi M, Kroeger K, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Gene therapy and targeted toxins for glioma. Curr Gene Ther. 2005 Dec; 5(6):535-57. PMID: 16457645.
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    118. Iannacone M, Sitia G, Isogawa M, Marchese P, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR, Chisari FV, Ruggeri ZM, Guidotti LG. Platelets mediate cytotoxic T lymphocyte-induced liver damage. Nat Med. 2005 Nov; 11(11):1167-9. PMID: 16258538.
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    119. Ali S, King GD, Curtin JF, Candolfi M, Xiong W, Liu C, Puntel M, Cheng Q, Prieto J, Ribas A, Kupiec-Weglinski J, van Rooijen N, Lassmann H, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Combined immunostimulation and conditional cytotoxic gene therapy provide long-term survival in a large glioma model. Cancer Res. 2005 Aug 15; 65(16):7194-204. PMID: 16103070.
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    120. Grande-Pérez A, Gómez-Mariano G, Lowenstein PR, Domingo E. Mutagenesis-induced, large fitness variations with an invariant arenavirus consensus genomic nucleotide sequence. J Virol. 2005 Aug; 79(16):10451-9. PMID: 16051837.
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    121. Lowenstein PR. The case for immunosuppression in clinical gene transfer. Mol Ther. 2005 Aug; 12(2):185-6. PMID: 16002339.
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    122. Abordo-Adesida E, Follenzi A, Barcia C, Sciascia S, Castro MG, Naldini L, Lowenstein PR. Stability of lentiviral vector-mediated transgene expression in the brain in the presence of systemic antivector immune responses. Hum Gene Ther. 2005 Jun; 16(6):741-51. PMID: 15960605.
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    123. Grande-Pérez A, Lázaro E, Lowenstein P, Domingo E, Manrubia SC. Suppression of viral infectivity through lethal defection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 22; 102(12):4448-52. PMID: 15767582.
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    124. Curtin JF, King GD, Candolfi M, Greeno RB, Kroeger KM, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Combining cytotoxic and immune-mediated gene therapy to treat brain tumors. Curr Top Med Chem. 2005; 5(12):1151-70. PMID: 16248789.
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    125. Ali S, Curtin JF, Zirger JM, Xiong W, King GD, Barcia C, Liu C, Puntel M, Goverdhana S, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Inflammatory and anti-glioma effects of an adenovirus expressing human soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (hsFlt3L): treatment with hsFlt3L inhibits intracranial glioma progression. Mol Ther. 2004 Dec; 10(6):1071-84. PMID: 15564139.
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    126. Biglari A, Bataille D, Naumann U, Weller M, Zirger J, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Effects of ectopic decorin in modulating intracranial glioma progression in vivo, in a rat syngeneic model. Cancer Gene Ther. 2004 Nov; 11(11):721-32. PMID: 15475879.
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    127. Churchill GA, Airey DC, Allayee H, Angel JM, Attie AD, Beatty J, Beavis WD, Belknap JK, Bennett B, Berrettini W, Bleich A, Bogue M, Broman KW, Buck KJ, Buckler E, Burmeister M, Chesler EJ, Cheverud JM, Clapcote S, Cook MN, Cox RD, Crabbe JC, Crusio WE, Darvasi A, Deschepper CF, Doerge RW, Farber CR, Forejt J, Gaile D, Garlow SJ, Geiger H, Gershenfeld H, Gordon T, Gu J, Gu W, de Haan G, Hayes NL, Heller C, Himmelbauer H, Hitzemann R, Hunter K, Hsu HC, Iraqi FA, Ivandic B, Jacob HJ, Jansen RC, Jepsen KJ, Johnson DK, Johnson TE, Kempermann G, Kendziorski C, Kotb M, Kooy RF, Llamas B, Lammert F, Lassalle JM, Lowenstein PR, Lu L, Lusis A, Manly KF, Marcucio R, Matthews D, Medrano JF, Miller DR, Mittleman G, Mock BA, Mogil JS, Montagutelli X, Morahan G, Morris DG, Mott R, Nadeau JH, Nagase H, Nowakowski RS, O'Hara BF, Osadchuk AV, Page GP, Paigen B, Paigen K, Palmer AA, Pan HJ, Peltonen-Palotie L, Peirce J, Pomp D, Pravenec M, Prows DR, Qi Z, Reeves RH, Roder J, Rosen GD, Schadt EE, Schalkwyk LC, Seltzer Z, Shimomura K, Shou S, Sillanpää MJ, Siracusa LD, Snoeck HW, Spearow JL, Svenson K, Tarantino LM, Threadgill D, Toth LA, Valdar W, de Villena FP, Warden C, Whatley S, Williams RW, Wiltshire T, Yi N, Zhang D, Zhang M, Zou F. The Collaborative Cross, a community resource for the genetic analysis of complex traits. Nat Genet. 2004 Nov; 36(11):1133-7. PMID: 15514660.
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    128. Lowenstein PR. Input virion proteins: cryptic targets of antivector immune responses in preimmunized subjects. Mol Ther. 2004 Jun; 9(6):771-4. PMID: 15222326.
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    129. Dorigo O, Gil JS, Gallaher SD, Tan BT, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR, Calos MP, Berk AJ. Development of a novel helper-dependent adenovirus-Epstein-Barr virus hybrid system for the stable transformation of mammalian cells. J Virol. 2004 Jun; 78(12):6556-66. PMID: 15163748.
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    130. Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Recent advances in the pharmacology of neurological gene therapy. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2004 Feb; 4(1):91-7. PMID: 15018845.
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    131. Kingston PA, Sinha S, Appleby CE, David A, Verakis T, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR, Heagerty AM. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of transforming growth factor-beta3, but not transforming growth factor-beta1, inhibits constrictive remodeling and reduces luminal loss after coronary angioplasty. Circulation. 2003 Dec 02; 108(22):2819-25. PMID: 14638551.
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    132. Stone D, Xiong W, Williams JC, David A, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Adenovirus expression of IL-1 and NF-kappaB inhibitors does not inhibit acute adenoviral-induced brain inflammation, but delays immune system-mediated elimination of transgene expression. Mol Ther. 2003 Sep; 8(3):400-11. PMID: 12946313.
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    133. Castro M, Goverdhana S, Hu J, Jovel N, Yuan X, Lowenstein P. Gene therapy for pituitary tumors: from preclinical models to clinical implementation. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2003 Jan; 24(1):62-77. PMID: 12609500.
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    134. Hurtado-Lorenzo A, David A, Thomas C, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Use of recombinant adenovirus for gene transfer into the rat brain. Evaluation of gene transfer efficiency, toxicity, and inflammatory and immune reactions. Methods Mol Med. 2003; 76:113-33. PMID: 12526161.
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    135. Solly SK, Trajcevski S, Frisén C, Holzer GW, Nelson E, Clerc B, Abordo-Adesida E, Castro M, Lowenstein P, Klatzmann D. Replicative retroviral vectors for cancer gene therapy. Cancer Gene Ther. 2003 Jan; 10(1):30-9. PMID: 12489026.
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    136. Lowenstein PR, Suwelack D, Hu J, Yuan X, Jimenez-Dalmaroni M, Goverdhana S, Castro MG. Nonneurotropic adenovirus: a vector for gene transfer to the brain and gene therapy of neurological disorders. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2003; 55:3-64. PMID: 12968530.
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    137. Guillot C, Ménoret S, Guillonneau C, Braudeau C, Castro MG, Lowenstein P, Anegon I. Active suppression of allogeneic proliferative responses by dendritic cells after induction of long-term allograft survival by CTLA4Ig. Blood. 2003 Apr 15; 101(8):3325-33. PMID: 12515725.
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    138. Cowen RL, Williams JC, Emery S, Blakey D, Darling JL, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Adenovirus vector-mediated delivery of the prodrug-converting enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 in a secreted or GPI-anchored form: High-level expression of this active conditional cytotoxic enzyme at the plasma membrane. Cancer Gene Ther. 2002 Nov; 9(11):897-907. PMID: 12386828.
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    139. Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Progress and challenges in viral vector-mediated gene transfer to the brain. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2002 Aug; 4(4):359-71. PMID: 12222874.
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    140. Qiu J, Whalen MJ, Lowenstein P, Fiskum G, Fahy B, Darwish R, Aarabi B, Yuan J, Moskowitz MA. Upregulation of the Fas receptor death-inducing signaling complex after traumatic brain injury in mice and humans. J Neurosci. 2002 May 01; 22(9):3504-11. PMID: 11978827.
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    141. Thomas CE, Edwards P, Wickham TJ, Castro MG, Lowenstein PR. Adenovirus binding to the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor or integrins is not required to elicit brain inflammation but is necessary to transduce specific neural cell types. J Virol. 2002 Apr; 76(7):3452-60. PMID: 11884569.
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    142. Lowenstein PR. Dendritic cells and immune responses in the central nervous system. Trends Immunol. 2002 Feb 01; 23(2):70. PMID: 11956012.
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    143. Lowenstein PR. Immunology of viral-vector-mediated gene transfer into the brain: an evolutionary and developmental perspective. Trends Immunol. 2002 Jan; 23(1):23-30. PMID: 11801451.
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