Wayne L Hubbell

Title(s)Professor, Ophthalmology
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    Collapse Overview
    Wayne L. Hubbell, Ph.D., holds the Jules Stein Chair in Ophthalmology.

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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    NIH S10RR014807Apr 1, 2000 - Mar 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R03TW000456Jun 1, 1994 - May 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular Basis of Membrane Excitation
    NIH R01EY005216Jul 1, 1983 - Apr 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R37EY005216Jul 1, 1983 - Apr 30, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Vision Research Core at UCLA
    NIH P30EY000331Nov 1, 1978 - Jun 30, 2025
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Conformational flexibility of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins modulates transmitted / founder sensitivity to broadly neutralizing antibodies. bioRxiv. 2023 Dec 05. Parthasarathy D, Pothula KR, Dam KA, Ratnapriya S, Benet HC, Parsons R, Huang X, Sammour S, Janowska K, Harris M, Sacco S, Sodroski J, Bridges MD, Hubbell WL, Acharya P, Herschhorn A. PMID: 37745449; PMCID: PMC10515946.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    2. Membrane potential accelerates sugar uptake by stabilizing the outward facing conformation of the Na/glucose symporter vSGLT. Nat Commun. 2023 11 18; 14(1):7511. Khan F, Elgeti M, Grandfield S, Paz A, Naughton FB, Marcoline FV, Althoff T, Ermolova N, Wright EM, Hubbell WL, Grabe M, Abramson J. PMID: 37980423; PMCID: PMC10657379.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    3. A Highly Ordered Nitroxide Side Chain for Distance Mapping and Monitoring Slow Structural Fluctuations in Proteins. Appl Magn Reson. 2024; 55(1-3):251-277. Chen M, Kálai T, Cascio D, Bridges MD, Whitelegge JP, Elgeti M, Hubbell WL. PMID: 38357006; PMCID: PMC10861403.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    4. Conformational dynamics of the μ-opioid receptor determine ligand intrinsic efficacy. bioRxiv. 2023 Apr 29. Zhao J, Elgeti M, O'Brien ES, Sár CP, Ei Daibani A, Heng J, Sun X, Che T, Hubbell WL, Kobilka BK, Chen C. PMID: 37163120; PMCID: PMC10168371.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    5. Neutralizing antibodies induced in immunized macaques recognize the CD4-binding site on an occluded-open HIV-1 envelope trimer. Nat Commun. 2022 02 08; 13(1):732. Yang Z, Dam KA, Bridges MD, Hoffmann MAG, DeLaitsch AT, Gristick HB, Escolano A, Gautam R, Martin MA, Nussenzweig MC, Hubbell WL, Bjorkman PJ. PMID: 35136084; PMCID: PMC8826976.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    6. Lipid bilayer induces contraction of the denatured state ensemble of a helical-bundle membrane protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 01 04; 119(1). Gaffney KA, Guo R, Bridges MD, Muhammednazaar S, Chen D, Kim M, Yang Z, Schilmiller AL, Faruk NF, Peng X, Jones AD, Kim KH, Sun L, Hubbell WL, Sosnick TR, Hong H. PMID: 34969836; PMCID: PMC8740594.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    7. DEER Analysis of GPCR Conformational Heterogeneity. Biomolecules. 2021 05 22; 11(6). Elgeti M, Hubbell WL. PMID: 34067265; PMCID: PMC8224605.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    8. An Eight Amino Acid Segment Controls Oligomerization and Preferred Conformation of the two Non-visual Arrestins. J Mol Biol. 2021 02 19; 433(4):166790. Chen Q, Zhuo Y, Sharma P, Perez I, Francis DJ, Chakravarthy S, Vishnivetskiy SA, Berndt S, Hanson SM, Zhan X, Brooks EK, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Klug CS, Iverson TM, Gurevich VV. PMID: 33387531; PMCID: PMC7870585.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    9. Viewing rare conformations of the β2 adrenergic receptor with pressure-resolved DEER spectroscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 12 15; 117(50):31824-31831. Lerch MT, Matt RA, Masureel M, Elgeti M, Kumar KK, Hilger D, Foys B, Kobilka BK, Hubbell WL. PMID: 33257561; PMCID: PMC7749303.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    10. Synthetic nanobodies as angiotensin receptor blockers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 08 18; 117(33):20284-20291. McMahon C, Staus DP, Wingler LM, Wang J, Skiba MA, Elgeti M, Hubbell WL, Rockman HA, Kruse AC, Lefkowitz RJ. PMID: 32753386; PMCID: PMC7443875.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    11. Resolving dynamics and function of transient states in single enzyme molecules. Nat Commun. 2020 03 06; 11(1):1231. Sanabria H, Rodnin D, Hemmen K, Peulen TO, Felekyan S, Fleissner MR, Dimura M, Koberling F, Kühnemuth R, Hubbell W, Gohlke H, Seidel CAM. PMID: 32144241; PMCID: PMC7060211.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    12. Angiotensin Analogs with Divergent Bias Stabilize Distinct Receptor Conformations. Cell. 2019 01 24; 176(3):468-478.e11. Wingler LM, Elgeti M, Hilger D, Latorraca NR, Lerch MT, Staus DP, Dror RO, Kobilka BK, Hubbell WL, Lefkowitz RJ. PMID: 30639099; PMCID: PMC6475118.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 107     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    13. Conformational heterogeneity of the allosteric drug and metabolite (ADaM) site in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). J Biol Chem. 2018 11 02; 293(44):16994-17007. Gu X, Bridges MD, Yan Y, de Waal PW, Zhou XE, Suino-Powell KM, Xu HE, Hubbell WL, Melcher K. PMID: 30206123; PMCID: PMC6222100.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    14. Structural basis for activation of voltage sensor domains in an ion channel TPC1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 09 25; 115(39):E9095-E9104. Kintzer AF, Green EM, Dominik PK, Bridges M, Armache JP, Deneka D, Kim SS, Hubbell W, Kossiakoff AA, Cheng Y, Stroud RM. PMID: 30190435; PMCID: PMC6166827.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. DEER Spectroscopy Measurements Reveal Multiple Conformations of HIV-1 SOSIP Envelopes that Show Similarities with Envelopes on Native Virions. Immunity. 2018 08 21; 49(2):235-246.e4. Stadtmueller BM, Bridges MD, Dam KM, Lerch MT, Huey-Tubman KE, Hubbell WL, Bjorkman PJ. PMID: 30076100; PMCID: PMC6104740.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 43     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    16. Gi- and Gs-coupled GPCRs show different modes of G-protein binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 03 06; 115(10):2383-2388. Van Eps N, Altenbach C, Caro LN, Latorraca NR, Hollingsworth SA, Dror RO, Ernst OP, Hubbell WL. PMID: 29463720; PMCID: PMC5877964.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Protonation state of glutamate 73 regulates the formation of a specific dimeric association of mVDAC1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 01 09; 115(2):E172-E179. Bergdoll LA, Lerch MT, Patrick JW, Belardo K, Altenbach C, Bisignano P, Laganowsky A, Grabe M, Hubbell WL, Abramson J. PMID: 29279396; PMCID: PMC5777057.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Identification of Phosphorylation Codes for Arrestin Recruitment by G Protein-Coupled Receptors. Cell. 2017 Jul 27; 170(3):457-469.e13. Zhou XE, He Y, de Waal PW, Gao X, Kang Y, Van Eps N, Yin Y, Pal K, Goswami D, White TA, Barty A, Latorraca NR, Chapman HN, Hubbell WL, Dror RO, Stevens RC, Cherezov V, Gurevich VV, Griffin PR, Ernst OP, Melcher K, Xu HE. PMID: 28753425; PMCID: PMC5567868.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 189     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    19. Conformational equilibria of light-activated rhodopsin in nanodiscs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 04 18; 114(16):E3268-E3275. Van Eps N, Caro LN, Morizumi T, Kusnetzow AK, Szczepek M, Hofmann KP, Bayburt TH, Sligar SG, Ernst OP, Hubbell WL. PMID: 28373559; PMCID: PMC5402410.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    20. A PII-Like Protein Regulated by Bicarbonate: Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Carboxysome-Associated CPII Protein. J Mol Biol. 2016 10 09; 428(20):4013-4030. Wheatley NM, Eden KD, Ngo J, Rosinski JS, Sawaya MR, Cascio D, Collazo M, Hoveida H, Hubbell WL, Yeates TO. PMID: 27464895; PMCID: PMC5048545.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    21. Biophysical and Biochemical Characterization of Avian Secretory Component Provides Structural Insights into the Evolution of the Polymeric Ig Receptor. J Immunol. 2016 08 15; 197(4):1408-14. Stadtmueller BM, Yang Z, Huey-Tubman KE, Roberts-Mataric H, Hubbell WL, Bjorkman PJ. PMID: 27412418; PMCID: PMC4976031.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    22. A triarylmethyl spin label for long-range distance measurement at physiological temperatures using T1 relaxation enhancement. J Magn Reson. 2016 08; 269:50-54. Yang Z, Bridges MD, López CJ, Rogozhnikova OY, Trukhin DV, Brooks EK, Tormyshev V, Halpern HJ, Hubbell WL. PMID: 27214582; PMCID: PMC4958593.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    23. Conformational Mobility in Cytochrome P450 3A4 Explored by Pressure-Perturbation EPR Spectroscopy. Biophys J. 2016 Apr 12; 110(7):1485-1498. Davydov DR, Yang Z, Davydova N, Halpert JR, Hubbell WL. PMID: 27074675; PMCID: PMC4833771.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    24. Steric trapping reveals a cooperativity network in the intramembrane protease GlpG. Nat Chem Biol. 2016 May; 12(5):353-360. Guo R, Gaffney K, Yang Z, Kim M, Sungsuwan S, Huang X, Hubbell WL, Hong H. PMID: 26999782; PMCID: PMC4837050.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    25. The structure and dynamics of secretory component and its interactions with polymeric immunoglobulins. Elife. 2016 Mar 04; 5. Stadtmueller BM, Huey-Tubman KE, López CJ, Yang Z, Hubbell WL, Bjorkman PJ. PMID: 26943617; PMCID: PMC4786434.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    26. High-Pressure EPR and Site-Directed Spin Labeling for Mapping Molecular Flexibility in Proteins. Methods Enzymol. 2015; 564:29-57. Lerch MT, Yang Z, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL. PMID: 26477247.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    27. Exploring Structure, Dynamics, and Topology of Nitroxide Spin-Labeled Proteins Using Continuous-Wave Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Methods Enzymol. 2015; 564:59-100. Altenbach C, López CJ, Hideg K, Hubbell WL. PMID: 26477248.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    28. Saturation Recovery EPR and Nitroxide Spin Labeling for Exploring Structure and Dynamics in Proteins. Methods Enzymol. 2015; 564:3-27. Yang Z, Bridges M, Lerch MT, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL. PMID: 26477246.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Crystal structure of rhodopsin bound to arrestin by femtosecond X-ray laser. Nature. 2015 Jul 30; 523(7562):561-7. Kang Y, Zhou XE, Gao X, He Y, Liu W, Ishchenko A, Barty A, White TA, Yefanov O, Han GW, Xu Q, de Waal PW, Ke J, Tan MH, Zhang C, Moeller A, West GM, Pascal BD, Van Eps N, Caro LN, Vishnivetskiy SA, Lee RJ, Suino-Powell KM, Gu X, Pal K, Ma J, Zhi X, Boutet S, Williams GJ, Messerschmidt M, Gati C, Zatsepin NA, Wang D, James D, Basu S, Roy-Chowdhury S, Conrad CE, Coe J, Liu H, Lisova S, Kupitz C, Grotjohann I, Fromme R, Jiang Y, Tan M, Yang H, Li J, Wang M, Zheng Z, Li D, Howe N, Zhao Y, Standfuss J, Diederichs K, Dong Y, Potter CS, Carragher B, Caffrey M, Jiang H, Chapman HN, Spence JC, Fromme P, Weierstall U, Ernst OP, Katritch V, Gurevich VV, Griffin PR, Hubbell WL, Stevens RC, Cherezov V, Melcher K, Xu HE. PMID: 26200343; PMCID: PMC4521999.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 369     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    30. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Structural basis for nucleotide exchange in heterotrimeric G proteins. Science. 2015 Jun 19; 348(6241):1361-5. Dror RO, Mildorf TJ, Hilger D, Manglik A, Borhani DW, Arlow DH, Philippsen A, Villanueva N, Yang Z, Lerch MT, Hubbell WL, Kobilka BK, Sunahara RK, Shaw DE. PMID: 26089515; PMCID: PMC4968074.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 139     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    31. Structural Insights into the Dynamic Process of β2-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling. Cell. 2015 May 21; 161(5):1101-1111. Manglik A, Kim TH, Masureel M, Altenbach C, Yang Z, Hilger D, Lerch MT, Kobilka TS, Thian FS, Hubbell WL, Prosser RS, Kobilka BK. PMID: 25981665; PMCID: PMC4441853.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 289     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    32. Structure-relaxation mechanism for the response of T4 lysozyme cavity mutants to hydrostatic pressure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 12; 112(19):E2437-46. Lerch MT, López CJ, Yang Z, Kreitman MJ, Horwitz J, Hubbell WL. PMID: 25918400; PMCID: PMC4434698.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    33. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Ric-8A induces domain separation and Ras domain plasticity in Gαi1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Feb 03; 112(5):1404-9. Van Eps N, Thomas CJ, Hubbell WL, Sprang SR. PMID: 25605908; PMCID: PMC4321267.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    34. Differential dynamics of extracellular and cytoplasmic domains in denatured States of rhodopsin. Biochemistry. 2014 Nov 25; 53(46):7160-9. Dutta A, Altenbach C, Mangahas S, Yanamala N, Gardner E, Hubbell WL, Klein-Seetharaman J. PMID: 25268658; PMCID: PMC4245987.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    35. Stationary-phase EPR for exploring protein structure, conformation, and dynamics in spin-labeled proteins. Biochemistry. 2014 Nov 18; 53(45):7067-75. López CJ, Fleissner MR, Brooks EK, Hubbell WL. PMID: 25333901; PMCID: PMC4238802.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    36. Long-range distance measurements in proteins at physiological temperatures using saturation recovery EPR spectroscopy. J Am Chem Soc. 2014 Oct 29; 136(43):15356-65. Yang Z, Jiménez-Osés G, López CJ, Bridges MD, Houk KN, Hubbell WL. PMID: 25290172; PMCID: PMC4227719.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    37. Structural and energetic determinants of adhesive binding specificity in type I cadherins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Oct 07; 111(40):E4175-84. Vendome J, Felsovalyi K, Song H, Yang Z, Jin X, Brasch J, Harrison OJ, Ahlsen G, Bahna F, Kaczynska A, Katsamba PS, Edmond D, Hubbell WL, Shapiro L, Honig B. PMID: 25253890; PMCID: PMC4210030.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    38. Mapping protein conformational heterogeneity under pressure with site-directed spin labeling and double electron-electron resonance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 01; 111(13):E1201-10. Lerch MT, Yang Z, Brooks EK, Hubbell WL. PMID: 24707053; PMCID: PMC3977274.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. High resolution structure and double electron-electron resonance of the zebrafish voltage-dependent anion channel 2 reveal an oligomeric population. J Biol Chem. 2014 May 02; 289(18):12566-77. Schredelseker J, Paz A, López CJ, Altenbach C, Leung CS, Drexler MK, Chen JN, Hubbell WL, Abramson J. PMID: 24627492; PMCID: PMC4007448.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 64     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Self-association of arrestin family members. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2014; 219:205-23. Chen Q, Zhuo Y, Kim M, Hanson SM, Francis DJ, Vishnivetskiy SA, Altenbach C, Klug CS, Hubbell WL, Gurevich VV. PMID: 24292832; PMCID: PMC4512752.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    41. Circular dichroism and site-directed spin labeling reveal structural and dynamical features of high-pressure states of myoglobin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Dec 03; 110(49):E4714-22. Lerch MT, Horwitz J, McCoy J, Hubbell WL. PMID: 24248390; PMCID: PMC3856799.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    42. Conformational selection and adaptation to ligand binding in T4 lysozyme cavity mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 12; 110(46):E4306-15. López CJ, Yang Z, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL. PMID: 24167295; PMCID: PMC3832024.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    43. Rapid degeneration of rod photoreceptors expressing self-association-deficient arrestin-1 mutant. Cell Signal. 2013 Dec; 25(12):2613-24. Song X, Seo J, Baameur F, Vishnivetskiy SA, Chen Q, Kook S, Kim M, Brooks EK, Altenbach C, Hong Y, Hanson SM, Palazzo MC, Chen J, Hubbell WL, Gurevich EV, Gurevich VV. PMID: 24012956; PMCID: PMC3833262.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Technological advances in site-directed spin labeling of proteins. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2013 Oct; 23(5):725-33. Hubbell WL, López CJ, Altenbach C, Yang Z. PMID: 23850140; PMCID: PMC3805720.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 102     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    45. EPR relaxation-enhancement-based distance measurements on orthogonally spin-labeled T4-lysozyme. Chembiochem. 2013 Sep 23; 14(14):1883-90. Razzaghi S, Brooks EK, Bordignon E, Hubbell WL, Yulikov M, Jeschke G. PMID: 23775845; PMCID: PMC3804414.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    46. Structure and dynamics of an imidazoline nitroxide side chain with strongly hindered internal motion in proteins. J Magn Reson. 2013 Jul; 232:53-61. Toledo Warshaviak D, Khramtsov VV, Cascio D, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL. PMID: 23694751; PMCID: PMC3758229.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    47. Orthogonal spin labeling and Gd(III)-nitroxide distance measurements on bacteriophage T4-lysozyme. J Phys Chem B. 2013 Mar 21; 117(11):3145-53. Garbuio L, Bordignon E, Brooks EK, Hubbell WL, Jeschke G, Yulikov M. PMID: 23442004; PMCID: PMC3634801.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    48. Engineering visual arrestin-1 with special functional characteristics. J Biol Chem. 2013 Feb 01; 288(5):3394-405. Vishnivetskiy SA, Chen Q, Palazzo MC, Brooks EK, Altenbach C, Iverson TM, Hubbell WL, Gurevich VV. PMID: 23250748; PMCID: PMC3561558.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    49. Conformation of receptor-bound visual arrestin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 06; 109(45):18407-12. Kim M, Vishnivetskiy SA, Van Eps N, Alexander NS, Cleghorn WM, Zhan X, Hanson SM, Morizumi T, Ernst OP, Meiler J, Gurevich VV, Hubbell WL. PMID: 23091036; PMCID: PMC3494953.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 64     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    50. Probing Protein Secondary Structure using EPR: Investigating a Dynamic Region of Visual Arrestin. Appl Magn Reson. 2012 Oct; 43(3):405-419. Francis DJ, Hubbell WL, Klug CS. PMID: 25419051; PMCID: PMC4240029.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3  
    51. Structural states and dynamics of the D-loop in actin. Biophys J. 2012 Sep 05; 103(5):930-9. Durer ZA, Kudryashov DS, Sawaya MR, Altenbach C, Hubbell W, Reisler E. PMID: 23009842; PMCID: PMC3433612.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    52. Mapping molecular flexibility of proteins with site-directed spin labeling: a case study of myoglobin. Biochemistry. 2012 Aug 21; 51(33):6568-83. López CJ, Oga S, Hubbell WL. PMID: 22809279; PMCID: PMC3483079.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Pulsed ESR dipolar spectroscopy for distance measurements in immobilized spin labeled proteins in liquid solution. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Jun 20; 134(24):9950-2. Yang Z, Liu Y, Borbat P, Zweier JL, Freed JH, Hubbell WL. PMID: 22676043; PMCID: PMC3409244.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    54. A rigid disulfide-linked nitroxide side chain simplifies the quantitative analysis of PRE data. J Biomol NMR. 2011 Sep; 51(1-2):105-14. Fawzi NL, Fleissner MR, Anthis NJ, Kálai T, Hideg K, Hubbell WL, Clore GM. PMID: 21947919; PMCID: PMC3489005.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    55. Structure and dynamics of a conformationally constrained nitroxide side chain and applications in EPR spectroscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 27; 108(39):16241-6. Fleissner MR, Bridges MD, Brooks EK, Cascio D, Kálai T, Hideg K, Hubbell WL. PMID: 21911399; PMCID: PMC3182725.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 67     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    56. Site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance study of the ORF1 protein from a mouse L1 retrotransposon. Protein Sci. 2011 Jul; 20(7):1231-43. Januszyk K, Fleissner MR, Atchabahian L, Shieh FK, Altenbach C, Martin SL, Guo F, Hubbell WL, Clubb RT. PMID: 21563223; PMCID: PMC3149196.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Interaction of a G protein with an activated receptor opens the interdomain interface in the alpha subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jun 07; 108(23):9420-4. Van Eps N, Preininger AM, Alexander N, Kaya AI, Meier S, Meiler J, Hamm HE, Hubbell WL. PMID: 21606326; PMCID: PMC3111277.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 88     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. Few residues within an extensive binding interface drive receptor interaction and determine the specificity of arrestin proteins. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jul 08; 286(27):24288-99. Vishnivetskiy SA, Gimenez LE, Francis DJ, Hanson SM, Hubbell WL, Klug CS, Gurevich VV. PMID: 21471193; PMCID: PMC3129209.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 77     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    59. Site-specific hydration dynamics in the nonpolar core of a molten globule by dynamic nuclear polarization of water. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Apr 20; 133(15):5987-95. Armstrong BD, Choi J, López C, Wesener DA, Hubbell W, Cavagnero S, Han S. PMID: 21443207; PMCID: PMC3095581.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    60. Robust self-association is a common feature of mammalian visual arrestin-1. Biochemistry. 2011 Mar 29; 50(12):2235-42. Kim M, Hanson SM, Vishnivetskiy SA, Song X, Cleghorn WM, Hubbell WL, Gurevich VV. PMID: 21288033; PMCID: PMC3062689.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    61. High-pressure EPR reveals conformational equilibria and volumetric properties of spin-labeled proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 25; 108(4):1331-6. McCoy J, Hubbell WL. PMID: 21205903; PMCID: PMC3029758.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    62. Conformational analysis of a nitroxide side chain in an α-helix with density functional theory. J Phys Chem B. 2011 Jan 20; 115(2):397-405. Warshaviak DT, Serbulea L, Houk KN, Hubbell WL. PMID: 21162593; PMCID: PMC3267783.
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    63. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of functionally active, nitroxide spin-labeled peptide analogues of the C-terminus of a G-protein alpha subunit. Biochemistry. 2010 Aug 17; 49(32):6877-86. Van Eps N, Anderson LL, Kisselev OG, Baranski TJ, Hubbell WL, Marshall GR. PMID: 20695526; PMCID: PMC2919855.
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    64. Multifrequency electron spin resonance study of the dynamics of spin labeled T4 lysozyme. J Phys Chem B. 2010 Apr 29; 114(16):5503-21. Zhang Z, Fleissner MR, Tipikin DS, Liang Z, Moscicki JK, Earle KA, Hubbell WL, Freed JH. PMID: 20361789; PMCID: PMC2865245.
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    65. Resolving Conformational and Rotameric Exchange in Spin-Labeled Proteins Using Saturation Recovery EPR. Appl Magn Reson. 2010 Jan 01; 37(1-4):363. Bridges MD, Hideg K, Hubbell WL. PMID: 20157634; PMCID: PMC2821067.
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    66. Site-directed spin labeling of a genetically encoded unnatural amino acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Dec 22; 106(51):21637-42. Fleissner MR, Brustad EM, Kálai T, Altenbach C, Cascio D, Peters FB, Hideg K, Peuker S, Schultz PG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 19995976; PMCID: PMC2799802.
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    67. The role of arrestin alpha-helix I in receptor binding. J Mol Biol. 2010 Jan 08; 395(1):42-54. Vishnivetskiy SA, Francis D, Van Eps N, Kim M, Hanson SM, Klug CS, Hubbell WL, Gurevich VV. PMID: 19883657; PMCID: PMC2787876.
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    68. Osmolyte perturbation reveals conformational equilibria in spin-labeled proteins. Protein Sci. 2009 Aug; 18(8):1637-52. López CJ, Fleissner MR, Guo Z, Kusnetzow AK, Hubbell WL. PMID: 19585559; PMCID: PMC2776952.
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    69. Structural origin of weakly ordered nitroxide motion in spin-labeled proteins. Protein Sci. 2009 May; 18(5):893-908. Fleissner MR, Cascio D, Hubbell WL. PMID: 19384990; PMCID: PMC2771293.
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    70. Effects of binding factors on structural elements in F-actin. Biochemistry. 2009 Jan 20; 48(2):370-8. Scoville D, Stamm JD, Altenbach C, Shvetsov A, Kokabi K, Rubenstein PA, Hubbell WL, Reisler E. PMID: 19113841; PMCID: PMC3133778.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    71. Structural biology: A moving story of receptors. Nature. 2008 Sep 25; 455(7212):473-4. Schwartz TW, Hubbell WL. PMID: 18818642; PMCID: PMC2668937.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    72. A model for the solution structure of the rod arrestin tetramer. Structure. 2008 Jun; 16(6):924-34. Hanson SM, Dawson ES, Francis DJ, Van Eps N, Klug CS, Hubbell WL, Meiler J, Gurevich VV. PMID: 18547524; PMCID: PMC2464289.
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    73. High-resolution distance mapping in rhodopsin reveals the pattern of helix movement due to activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 27; 105(21):7439-44. Altenbach C, Kusnetzow AK, Ernst OP, Hofmann KP, Hubbell WL. PMID: 18490656; PMCID: PMC2396682.
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    74. The structure of the lipid-embedded potassium channel voltage sensor determined by double-electron-electron resonance spectroscopy. Protein Sci. 2008 Mar; 17(3):506-17. Vamvouka M, Cieslak J, Van Eps N, Hubbell W, Gross A. PMID: 18287283; PMCID: PMC2248300.
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    75. Opposing effects of inositol hexakisphosphate on rod arrestin and arrestin2 self-association. Biochemistry. 2008 Jan 22; 47(3):1070-5. Hanson SM, Vishnivetskiy SA, Hubbell WL, Gurevich VV. PMID: 18161994; PMCID: PMC2562240.
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    76. Structural determinants of nitroxide motion in spin-labeled proteins: solvent-exposed sites in helix B of T4 lysozyme. Protein Sci. 2008 Feb; 17(2):228-39. Guo Z, Cascio D, Hideg K, Hubbell WL. PMID: 18096642; PMCID: PMC2222722.
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    77. Sequence of late molecular events in the activation of rhodopsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Dec 18; 104(51):20290-5. Knierim B, Hofmann KP, Ernst OP, Hubbell WL. PMID: 18077356; PMCID: PMC2154424.
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    78. Rhodopsin and 9-demethyl-retinal analog: effect of a partial agonist on displacement of transmembrane helix 6 in class A G protein-coupled receptors. J Biol Chem. 2008 Feb 22; 283(8):4967-74. Knierim B, Hofmann KP, Gärtner W, Hubbell WL, Ernst OP. PMID: 18063586.
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    79. Membrane activity of an amphiphilic alpha-helical membrane-proximal cytoplasmic domain of the MoMuLV envelope glycoprotein. Exp Mol Pathol. 2008 Feb; 84(1):9-17. Epand RF, Zhang YL, Mirzabekov T, Kagan B, Silberstein A, Hubbell WL, Epand RM, Chakraborti S, Dimitrov DS, Anderson WF, Rozenberg-Adler Y. PMID: 18206141.
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    80. Sugar binding induces an outward facing conformation of LacY. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 16; 104(42):16504-9. Smirnova I, Kasho V, Choe JY, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 17925435; PMCID: PMC2034228.
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    81. Structural determinants of nitroxide motion in spin-labeled proteins: tertiary contact and solvent-inaccessible sites in helix G of T4 lysozyme. Protein Sci. 2007 Jun; 16(6):1069-86. Guo Z, Cascio D, Hideg K, Kálái T, Hubbell WL. PMID: 17473014; PMCID: PMC2206656.
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    82. Mapping allosteric connections from the receptor to the nucleotide-binding pocket of heterotrimeric G proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 08; 104(19):7927-32. Oldham WM, Van Eps N, Preininger AM, Hubbell WL, Hamm HE. PMID: 17463080; PMCID: PMC1876549.
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    83. Different dark conformations function in color-sensitive photosignaling by the sensory rhodopsin I-HtrI complex. Biophys J. 2007 Jun 01; 92(11):4045-53. Sasaki J, Phillips BJ, Chen X, Van Eps N, Tsai AL, Hubbell WL, Spudich JL. PMID: 17351006; PMCID: PMC1868990.
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    84. Structure and function of the visual arrestin oligomer. EMBO J. 2007 Mar 21; 26(6):1726-36. Hanson SM, Van Eps N, Francis DJ, Altenbach C, Vishnivetskiy SA, Arshavsky VY, Klug CS, Hubbell WL, Gurevich VV. PMID: 17332750; PMCID: PMC1829381.
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    85. Hydrophobic loop dynamics and actin filament stability. Biochemistry. 2006 Nov 14; 45(45):13576-84. Scoville D, Stamm JD, Toledo-Warshaviak D, Altenbach C, Phillips M, Shvetsov A, Rubenstein PA, Hubbell WL, Reisler E. PMID: 17087511.
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    86. Structural and dynamical changes in an alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein along the activation pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 31; 103(44):16194-9. Van Eps N, Oldham WM, Hamm HE, Hubbell WL. PMID: 17053066; PMCID: PMC1637559.
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    87. Site-directed spin labeling measurements of nanometer distances in nucleic acids using a sequence-independent nitroxide probe. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006; 34(17):4722-30. Cai Q, Kusnetzow AK, Hubbell WL, Haworth IS, Gacho GP, Van Eps N, Hideg K, Chambers EJ, Qin PZ. PMID: 16966338; PMCID: PMC1635252.
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    88. Mechanism of the receptor-catalyzed activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006 Sep; 13(9):772-7. Oldham WM, Van Eps N, Preininger AM, Hubbell WL, Hamm HE. PMID: 16892066.
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    89. Sites of interaction of a precursor polypeptide on the export chaperone SecB mapped by site-directed spin labeling. J Mol Biol. 2006 Oct 13; 363(1):63-74. Crane JM, Suo Y, Lilly AA, Mao C, Hubbell WL, Randall LL. PMID: 16962134; PMCID: PMC2925277.
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    90. Details of the partial unfolding of T4 lysozyme on quartz using site-directed spin labeling. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2006 Jun 02; 45(23):3874-7. Jacobsen K, Hubbell WL, Ernst OP, Risse T. PMID: 16671129.
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    91. Conformational dynamics of loop 262-274 in G- and F-actin. Biochemistry. 2006 May 23; 45(20):6541-9. Shvetsov A, Stamm JD, Phillips M, Warshaviak D, Altenbach C, Rubenstein PA, Hideg K, Hubbell WL, Reisler E. PMID: 16700564.
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    92. Conformational states and dynamics of rhodopsin in micelles and bilayers. Biochemistry. 2006 May 02; 45(17):5538-50. Kusnetzow AK, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL. PMID: 16634635; PMCID: PMC2739654.
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    93. Differential interaction of spin-labeled arrestin with inactive and active phosphorhodopsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 28; 103(13):4900-5. Hanson SM, Francis DJ, Vishnivetskiy SA, Kolobova EA, Hubbell WL, Klug CS, Gurevich VV. PMID: 16547131; PMCID: PMC1458767.
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    94. Mapping of the docking of SecA onto the chaperone SecB by site-directed spin labeling: insight into the mechanism of ligand transfer during protein export. J Mol Biol. 2005 Oct 21; 353(2):295-307. Crane JM, Mao C, Lilly AA, Smith VF, Suo Y, Hubbell WL, Randall LL. PMID: 16169560.
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    95. Site-directed spin labeling studies reveal solution conformational changes in a GAAA tetraloop receptor upon Mg(2+)-dependent docking of a GAAA tetraloop. J Mol Biol. 2005 Aug 05; 351(1):1-8. Qin PZ, Feigon J, Hubbell WL. PMID: 15993422.
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    96. Accessibility of nitroxide side chains: absolute Heisenberg exchange rates from power saturation EPR. Biophys J. 2005 Sep; 89(3):2103-12. Altenbach C, Froncisz W, Hemker R, McHaourab H, Hubbell WL. PMID: 15994891; PMCID: PMC1366712.
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    97. Accessibility and dynamics of nitroxide side chains in T4 lysozyme measured by saturation recovery EPR. Biophys J. 2005 Sep; 89(3):2059-68. Pyka J, Ilnicki J, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Froncisz W. PMID: 15994892; PMCID: PMC1366708.
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    98. Determination of the orientation of T4 lysozyme vectorially bound to a planar-supported lipid bilayer using site-directed spin labeling. Biophys J. 2005 Jun; 88(6):4351-65. Jacobsen K, Oga S, Hubbell WL, Risse T. PMID: 15778448; PMCID: PMC1305663.
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    99. Multiquantum EPR spectroscopy of spin-labeled arrestin K267C at 35 GHz. Biophys J. 2005 May; 88(5):3641-7. Klug CS, Camenisch TG, Hubbell WL, Hyde JS. PMID: 15749769; PMCID: PMC1305511.
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    100. Structural origins of constitutive activation in rhodopsin: Role of the K296/E113 salt bridge. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 24; 101(34):12508-13. Kim JM, Altenbach C, Kono M, Oprian DD, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 15306683; PMCID: PMC515088.
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    101. Mapping backbone dynamics in solution with site-directed spin labeling: GCN4-58 bZip free and bound to DNA. Biochemistry. 2004 Jun 15; 43(23):7273-87. Columbus L, Hubbell WL. PMID: 15182173.
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    102. Structure and dynamics of a helical hairpin that mediates calcium-dependent membrane binding of annexin B12. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 30; 279(31):32492-8. Isas JM, Langen R, Hubbell WL, Haigler HT. PMID: 15143059.
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    103. Motion of spin label side chains in cellular retinol-binding protein: correlation with structure and nearest-neighbor interactions in an antiparallel beta-sheet. Biochemistry. 2004 Mar 23; 43(11):3137-51. Lietzow MA, Hubbell WL. PMID: 15023065.
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    104. Structure and dynamics of annexin 12 bound to a planar lipid bilayer. Phys Rev Lett. 2003 Oct 31; 91(18):188101. Risse T, Hubbell WL, Isas JM, Haigler HT. PMID: 14611318.
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    105. The myristoylated amino terminus of Galpha(i)(1) plays a critical role in the structure and function of Galpha(i)(1) subunits in solution. Biochemistry. 2003 Jul 08; 42(26):7931-41. Preininger AM, Van Eps N, Yu NJ, Medkova M, Hubbell WL, Hamm HE. PMID: 12834345.
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    106. Monitoring RNA base structure and dynamics using site-directed spin labeling. Biochemistry. 2003 Jun 10; 42(22):6772-83. Qin PZ, Hideg K, Feigon J, Hubbell WL. PMID: 12779332.
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    107. Phosphorylation triggers domain separation in the DNA binding response regulator NarL. Biochemistry. 2003 Mar 11; 42(9):2552-9. Zhang JH, Xiao G, Gunsalus RP, Hubbell WL. PMID: 12614149.
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    108. Rhodopsin structure, dynamics, and activation: a perspective from crystallography, site-directed spin labeling, sulfhydryl reactivity, and disulfide cross-linking. Adv Protein Chem. 2003; 63:243-90. Hubbell WL, Altenbach C, Hubbell CM, Khorana HG. PMID: 12629973.
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    109. Arrangement of subunits and ordering of beta-strands in an amyloid sheet. Nat Struct Biol. 2002 Oct; 9(10):734-9. Serag AA, Altenbach C, Gingery M, Hubbell WL, Yeates TO. PMID: 12219081.
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    110. Conformational changes in the amino-terminal helix of the G protein alpha(i1) following dissociation from Gbetagamma subunit and activation. Biochemistry. 2002 Aug 06; 41(31):9962-72. Medkova M, Preininger AM, Yu NJ, Hubbell WL, Hamm HE. PMID: 12146960.
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    111. Site-directed spin labeling of a bacterial chemoreceptor reveals a dynamic, loosely packed transmembrane domain. Protein Sci. 2002 Jun; 11(6):1472-81. Barnakov A, Altenbach C, Barnakova L, Hubbell WL, Hazelbauer GL. PMID: 12021446; PMCID: PMC2373632.
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    112. Structure and dynamics of a helical hairpin and loop region in annexin 12: a site-directed spin labeling study. Biochemistry. 2002 Feb 05; 41(5):1464-73. Isas JM, Langen R, Haigler HT, Hubbell WL. PMID: 11814339.
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    113. Identification of protein side chains near the membrane-aqueous interface: a site-directed spin labeling study of KcsA. Biochemistry. 2002 Jan 29; 41(4):1123-8. Gross A, Hubbell WL. PMID: 11802710.
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    114. A model for the structure of the Escherichia coli SOS-regulated UmuD2 protein. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002 Jan 22; 1(1):77-93. Sutton MD, Guzzo A, Narumi I, Costanzo M, Altenbach C, Ferentz AE, Hubbell WL, Walker GC. PMID: 12509298.
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    115. Estimation of inter-residue distances in spin labeled proteins at physiological temperatures: experimental strategies and practical limitations. Biochemistry. 2001 Dec 25; 40(51):15471-82. Altenbach C, Oh KJ, Trabanino RJ, Hideg K, Hubbell WL. PMID: 11747422.
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    116. Structure and function in rhodopsin: mapping light-dependent changes in distance between residue 65 in helix TM1 and residues in the sequence 306-319 at the cytoplasmic end of helix TM7 and in helix H8. Biochemistry. 2001 Dec 25; 40(51):15483-92. Altenbach C, Cai K, Klein-Seetharaman J, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 11747423.
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    117. Structure and function in rhodopsin: mapping light-dependent changes in distance between residue 316 in helix 8 and residues in the sequence 60-75, covering the cytoplasmic end of helices TM1 and TM2 and their connection loop CL1. Biochemistry. 2001 Dec 25; 40(51):15493-500. Altenbach C, Klein-Seetharaman J, Cai K, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 11747424.
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    118. Probing the dark state tertiary structure in the cytoplasmic domain of rhodopsin: proximities between amino acids deduced from spontaneous disulfide bond formation between Cys316 and engineered cysteines in cytoplasmic loop 1. Biochemistry. 2001 Oct 23; 40(42):12472-8. Klein-Seetharaman J, Hwa J, Cai K, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 11601970.
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    119. Probing the dark state tertiary structure in the cytoplasmic domain of rhodopsin: proximities between amino acids deduced from spontaneous disulfide bond formation between cysteine pairs engineered in cytoplasmic loops 1, 3, and 4. Biochemistry. 2001 Oct 23; 40(42):12479-85. Cai K, Klein-Seetharaman J, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 11601971.
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    120. Molecular motion of spin labeled side chains in alpha-helices: analysis by variation of side chain structure. Biochemistry. 2001 Apr 03; 40(13):3828-46. Columbus L, Kálai T, Jekö J, Hideg K, Hubbell WL. PMID: 11300763.
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    121. Helix packing in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli: distances between site-directed nitroxides and a lanthanide. Biochemistry. 2001 Mar 13; 40(10):3184-8. Voss J, Wu J, Hubbell WL, Jacques V, Meares CF, Kaback HR. PMID: 11258934.
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    122. Binding of spin-labeled galactosides to the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2000 Sep 19; 39(37):11381-8. Zhao M, Kálai T, Hideg K, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 10985783.
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    123. Identifying conformational changes with site-directed spin labeling. Nat Struct Biol. 2000 Sep; 7(9):735-9. Hubbell WL, Cafiso DS, Altenbach C. PMID: 10966640.
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    124. Crystal structures of spin labeled T4 lysozyme mutants: implications for the interpretation of EPR spectra in terms of structure. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25; 39(29):8396-405. Langen R, Oh KJ, Cascio D, Hubbell WL. PMID: 10913245.
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    125. Time-resolved site-directed spin-labeling studies of bacteriorhodopsin: loop-specific conformational changes in M. Biochemistry. 2000 Feb 08; 39(5):1120-7. Mollaaghababa R, Steinhoff HJ, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 10653658.
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    126. Protein global fold determination using site-directed spin and isotope labeling. Protein Sci. 2000 Feb; 9(2):302-9. Gaponenko V, Howarth JW, Columbus L, Gasmi-Seabrook G, Yuan J, Hubbell WL, Rosevear PR. PMID: 10716182; PMCID: PMC2144541.
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    127. Site-directed spin labeling of proteins. Applications to diphtheria toxin. Methods Mol Biol. 2000; 145:147-69. Oh KJ, Altenbach C, Collier RJ, Hubbell WL. PMID: 10820721.
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    128. Nitroxide scanning electron paramagnetic resonance of helices IV and V and the intervening loop in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1999 Nov 30; 38(48):15970-7. Zhao M, Zen KC, Hernandez-Borrell J, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 10625464.
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    129. Side chain mobility and ligand interactions of the G strand of tear lipocalins by site-directed spin labeling. Biochemistry. 1999 Oct 12; 38(41):13707-16. Glasgow BJ, Gasymov OK, Abduragimov AR, Yusifov TN, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL. PMID: 10521278.
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    130. Structure and function in rhodopsin: effects of disulfide cross-links in the cytoplasmic face of rhodopsin on transducin activation and phosphorylation by rhodopsin kinase. Biochemistry. 1999 Sep 28; 38(39):12893-8. Cai K, Klein-Seetharaman J, Hwa J, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 10504260.
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    131. Conformation of the diphtheria toxin T domain in membranes: a site-directed spin-labeling study of the TH8 helix and TL5 loop. Biochemistry. 1999 Aug 10; 38(32):10336-43. Oh KJ, Zhan H, Cui C, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Collier RJ. PMID: 10441127.
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    132. Structure of the KcsA potassium channel from Streptomyces lividans: a site-directed spin labeling study of the second transmembrane segment. Biochemistry. 1999 Aug 10; 38(32):10324-35. Gross A, Columbus L, Hideg K, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL. PMID: 10441126.
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    133. Single-cysteine substitution mutants at amino acid positions 306-321 in rhodopsin, the sequence between the cytoplasmic end of helix VII and the palmitoylation sites: sulfhydryl reactivity and transducin activation reveal a tertiary structure. Biochemistry. 1999 Jun 22; 38(25):7925-30. Cai K, Klein-Seetharaman J, Farrens D, Zhang C, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 10387034.
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    134. Single-cysteine substitution mutants at amino acid positions 55-75, the sequence connecting the cytoplasmic ends of helices I and II in rhodopsin: reactivity of the sulfhydryl groups and their derivatives identifies a tertiary structure that changes upon light-activation. Biochemistry. 1999 Jun 22; 38(25):7938-44. Klein-Seetharaman J, Hwa J, Cai K, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 10387036.
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    135. Structural features and light-dependent changes in the sequence 59-75 connecting helices I and II in rhodopsin: a site-directed spin-labeling study. Biochemistry. 1999 Jun 22; 38(25):7945-9. Altenbach C, Klein-Seetharaman J, Hwa J, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 10387037.
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    136. Structural features of the C-terminal domain of bovine rhodopsin: a site-directed spin-labeling study. Biochemistry. 1999 Jun 22; 38(25):7918-24. Langen R, Cai K, Altenbach C, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 10387033.
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    137. Structural features and light-dependent changes in the sequence 306-322 extending from helix VII to the palmitoylation sites in rhodopsin: a site-directed spin-labeling study. Biochemistry. 1999 Jun 22; 38(25):7931-7. Altenbach C, Cai K, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 10387035.
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    138. Proximity between Glu126 and Arg144 in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1999 Jun 08; 38(23):7407-12. Zhao M, Zen KC, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 10360937.
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    139. A multifrequency electron spin resonance study of T4 lysozyme dynamics. Biophys J. 1999 Jun; 76(6):3298-306. Barnes JP, Liang Z, Mchaourab HS, Freed JH, Hubbell WL. PMID: 10354455; PMCID: PMC1300299.
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    140. Motion of spin-labeled side chains in T4 lysozyme: effect of side chain structure. Biochemistry. 1999 Mar 09; 38(10):2947-55. Mchaourab HS, Kálai T, Hideg K, Hubbell WL. PMID: 10074347.
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    141. Proximity between periplasmic loops in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli as determined by site-directed spin labeling. Biochemistry. 1999 Mar 09; 38(10):3100-5. Sun J, Voss J, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 10074363.
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    142. Structure in the channel forming domain of colicin E1 bound to membranes: the 402-424 sequence. Protein Sci. 1999 Mar; 8(3):562-72. Salwinski L, Hubbell WL. PMID: 10091659; PMCID: PMC2144287.
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    143. A transmembrane form of annexin XII detected by site-directed spin labeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Nov 24; 95(24):14060-5. Langen R, Isas JM, Hubbell WL, Haigler HT. PMID: 9826653; PMCID: PMC24326.
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    144. Recent advances in site-directed spin labeling of proteins. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1998 Oct; 8(5):649-56. Hubbell WL, Gross A, Langen R, Lietzow MA. PMID: 9818271.
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    145. A rectangular loop-gap resonator for EPR studies of aqueous samples. J Magn Reson. 1998 Sep; 134(1):36-43. Piasecki W, Froncisz W, Hubbell WL. PMID: 9740728.
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    146. Membrane-mediated assembly of annexins studied by site-directed spin labeling. J Biol Chem. 1998 Aug 28; 273(35):22453-7. Langen R, Isas JM, Luecke H, Haigler HT, Hubbell WL. PMID: 9712869.
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    147. Proximity of helices VIII (Ala273) and IX (Met299) in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1998 Apr 07; 37(14):4910-5. Wang Q, Voss J, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 9538009.
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    148. Docking phospholipase A2 on membranes using electrostatic potential-modulated spin relaxation magnetic resonance. Science. 1998 Mar 20; 279(5358):1925-9. Lin Y, Nielsen R, Murray D, Hubbell WL, Mailer C, Robinson BH, Gelb MH. PMID: 9506941; PMCID: PMC3443684.
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    149. A conserved disulfide motif in human tear lipocalins influences ligand binding. Biochemistry. 1998 Feb 24; 37(8):2215-25. Glasgow BJ, Abduragimov AR, Yusifov TN, Gasymov OK, Horwitz J, Hubbell WL, Faull KF. PMID: 9485367.
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    150. Helix packing in the lactose permease determined by metal-nitroxide interaction. Biochemistry. 1998 Jan 06; 37(1):211-6. Voss J, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 9425041.
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    151. Structure and function in rhodopsin: rhodopsin mutants with a neutral amino acid at E134 have a partially activated conformation in the dark state. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Dec 23; 94(26):14273-8. Kim JM, Altenbach C, Thurmond RL, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 9405602; PMCID: PMC24937.
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    152. Structure and function in rhodopsin: topology of the C-terminal polypeptide chain in relation to the cytoplasmic loops. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Dec 23; 94(26):14267-72. Cai K, Langen R, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 9405601; PMCID: PMC24934.
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    153. Site-directed spin-labeling of transmembrane domain VII and the 4B1 antibody epitope in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1997 Dec 09; 36(49):15055-61. Voss J, Hubbell WL, Hernandez-Borrell J, Kaback HR. PMID: 9398232.
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    154. Arginine 302 (helix IX) in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli is in close proximity to glutamate 269 (helix VIII) as well as glutamate 325. Biochemistry. 1997 Nov 04; 36(44):13682-7. He MM, Voss J, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 9354638.
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    155. Conformation of T4 lysozyme in solution. Hinge-bending motion and the substrate-induced conformational transition studied by site-directed spin labeling. Biochemistry. 1997 Jan 14; 36(2):307-16. Mchaourab HS, Oh KJ, Fang CJ, Hubbell WL. PMID: 9003182.
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    156. Structure and function in rhodopsin. Cysteines 65 and 316 are in proximity in a rhodopsin mutant as indicated by disulfide formation and interactions between attached spin labels. Biochemistry. 1996 Nov 12; 35(45):14040-6. Yang K, Farrens DL, Altenbach C, Farahbakhsh ZT, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 8916888.
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    157. Requirement of rigid-body motion of transmembrane helices for light activation of rhodopsin. Science. 1996 Nov 01; 274(5288):768-70. Farrens DL, Altenbach C, Yang K, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 8864113.
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    158. Site-directed spin labeling demonstrates that transmembrane domain XII in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli is an alpha-helix. Biochemistry. 1996 Oct 01; 35(39):12915-8. Voss J, He MM, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 8841136.
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    159. Calculation of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra from Brownian dynamics trajectories: application to nitroxide side chains in proteins. Biophys J. 1996 Oct; 71(4):2201-12. Steinhoff HJ, Hubbell WL. PMID: 8889196; PMCID: PMC1233688.
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    160. Structure and function in rhodopsin. Single cysteine substitution mutants in the cytoplasmic interhelical E-F loop region show position-specific effects in transducin activation. Biochemistry. 1996 Sep 24; 35(38):12464-9. Yang K, Farrens DL, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 8823181.
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    161. Structural features and light-dependent changes in the cytoplasmic interhelical E-F loop region of rhodopsin: a site-directed spin-labeling study. Biochemistry. 1996 Sep 24; 35(38):12470-8. Altenbach C, Yang K, Farrens DL, Farahbakhsh ZT, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 8823182.
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    162. Site-directed spin labeling and chemical crosslinking demonstrate that helix V is close to helices VII and VIII in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Sep 17; 93(19):10123-7. Wu J, Voss J, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 8816762; PMCID: PMC38347.
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    163. Organization of diphtheria toxin T domain in bilayers: a site-directed spin labeling study. Science. 1996 Aug 09; 273(5276):810-2. Oh KJ, Zhan H, Cui C, Hideg K, Collier RJ, Hubbell WL. PMID: 8670424.
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    164. Watching proteins move using site-directed spin labeling. Structure. 1996 Jul 15; 4(7):779-83. Hubbell WL, Mchaourab HS, Altenbach C, Lietzow MA. PMID: 8805569.
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    165. Motion of spin-labeled side chains in T4 lysozyme. Correlation with protein structure and dynamics. Biochemistry. 1996 Jun 18; 35(24):7692-704. Mchaourab HS, Lietzow MA, Hideg K, Hubbell WL. PMID: 8672470.
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    166. Expression of bcl-2 inhibits cellular radical generation. Free Radic Res. 1996 Mar; 24(3):205-12. Wiedau-Pazos M, Trudell JR, Altenbach C, Kane DJ, Hubbell WL, Bredesen DE. PMID: 8728122.
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    167. Distance determination in proteins using designed metal ion binding sites and site-directed spin labeling: application to the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Dec 19; 92(26):12300-3. Voss J, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 8618889; PMCID: PMC40344.
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    168. A method for distance determination in proteins using a designed metal ion binding site and site-directed spin labeling: evaluation with T4 lysozyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Dec 19; 92(26):12295-9. Voss J, Salwinski L, Kaback HR, Hubbell WL. PMID: 8618888; PMCID: PMC40343.
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    169. Use of designed metal-binding sites to study helix proximity in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. 1. Proximity of helix VII (Asp237 and Asp240) with helices X (Lys319) and XI (Lys358). Biochemistry. 1995 Dec 05; 34(48):15661-6. He MM, Voss J, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 7495795.
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    170. Use of designed metal-binding sites to study helix proximity in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. 2. Proximity of helix IX (Arg302) with helix X (His322 and Glu325). Biochemistry. 1995 Dec 05; 34(48):15667-70. He MM, Voss J, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 7495796.
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    171. Membrane topology of helices VII and XI in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli studied by lacY-phoA fusion analysis and site-directed spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1995 Nov 14; 34(45):14909-17. Ujwal ML, Jung H, Bibi E, Manoil C, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 7578103.
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    172. Site directed spin labeling studies of structure and dynamics in bacteriorhodopsin. Biophys Chem. 1995 Sep-Oct; 56(1-2):89-94. Steinhoff HJ, Mollaaghababa R, Altenbach C, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 7662873.
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    173. Mapping light-dependent structural changes in the cytoplasmic loop connecting helices C and D in rhodopsin: a site-directed spin labeling study. Biochemistry. 1995 Jul 11; 34(27):8812-9. Farahbakhsh ZT, Ridge KD, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 7612622.
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    174. Engineering a metal binding site within a polytopic membrane protein, the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1995 May 16; 34(19):6272-7. Jung K, Voss J, He M, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR. PMID: 7756253.
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    175. Tear lipocalins bind a broad array of lipid ligands. Curr Eye Res. 1995 May; 14(5):363-72. Glasgow BJ, Abduragimov AR, Farahbakhsh ZT, Faull KF, Hubbell WL. PMID: 7648862.
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    176. Interaction of the isolated transmembrane domain of diphtheria toxin with membranes. Biochemistry. 1995 Apr 11; 34(14):4856-63. Zhan H, Oh KJ, Shin YK, Hubbell WL, Collier RJ. PMID: 7718592.
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    177. Interaction of alpha-crystallin with spin-labeled peptides. Biochemistry. 1995 Jan 17; 34(2):509-16. Farahbakhsh ZT, Huang QL, Ding LL, Altenbach C, Steinhoff HJ, Horwitz J, Hubbell WL. PMID: 7819243.
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    178. Time-resolved detection of structural changes during the photocycle of spin-labeled bacteriorhodopsin. Science. 1994 Oct 07; 266(5182):105-7. Steinhoff HJ, Mollaaghababa R, Altenbach C, Hideg K, Krebs M, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 7939627.
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    179. Site-specific incorporation of biophysical probes into proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 12; 91(8):2910-4. Cornish VW, Benson DR, Altenbach CA, Hideg K, Hubbell WL, Schultz PG. PMID: 8159678; PMCID: PMC521698.
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    180. A collision gradient method to determine the immersion depth of nitroxides in lipid bilayers: application to spin-labeled mutants of bacteriorhodopsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Mar 01; 91(5):1667-71. Altenbach C, Greenhalgh DA, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 8127863; PMCID: PMC43224.
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    181. Photoactivated conformational changes in rhodopsin: a time-resolved spin label study. Science. 1993 Nov 26; 262(5138):1416-9. Farahbakhsh ZT, Hideg K, Hubbell WL. PMID: 8248781.
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    182. Formation of the meta II photointermediate is accompanied by conformational changes in the cytoplasmic surface of rhodopsin. Biochemistry. 1993 Nov 16; 32(45):12025-32. Resek JF, Farahbakhsh ZT, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 8218279.
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    183. Voltage activation of reconstituted sodium channels: use of bacteriorhodopsin as a light-driven current source. Biochemistry. 1993 Oct 05; 32(39):10471-8. Perozo E, Hubbell WL. PMID: 8399193.
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    184. Probes of membrane electrostatics: synthesis and voltage-dependent partitioning of negative hydrophobic ion spin labels in lipid vesicles. Biophys J. 1993 Mar; 64(3):642-53. Franklin JC, Cafiso DS, Flewelling RF, Hubbell WL. PMID: 8386011; PMCID: PMC1262376.
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    185. Colicin E1 binding to membranes: time-resolved studies of spin-labeled mutants. Science. 1993 Feb 12; 259(5097):960-3. Shin YK, Levinthal C, Levinthal F, Hubbell WL. PMID: 8382373.
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    186. Phospholipid asymmetry and transmembrane diffusion in photoreceptor disc membranes. Biochemistry. 1993 Jan 26; 32(3):879-88. Wu G, Hubbell WL. PMID: 8380712.
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    187. Spin labeled cysteines as sensors for protein-lipid interaction and conformation in rhodopsin. Photochem Photobiol. 1992 Dec; 56(6):1019-33. Farahbakhsh ZT, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL. PMID: 1492127.
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    188. Determination of electrostatic potentials at biological interfaces using electron-electron double resonance. Biophys J. 1992 Jun; 61(6):1443-53. Shin YK, Hubbell WL. PMID: 1319760; PMCID: PMC1260440.
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    189. Molecular characterization of helix-loop-helix peptides. Science. 1992 Feb 21; 255(5047):979-83. Anthony-Cahill SJ, Benfield PA, Fairman R, Wasserman ZR, Brenner SL, Stafford WF, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, DeGrado WF. PMID: 1312255.
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    190. Locations of Arg-82, Asp-85, and Asp-96 in helix C of bacteriorhodopsin relative to the aqueous boundaries. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Oct 01; 88(19):8626-30. Greenhalgh DA, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Khorana HG. PMID: 1656452; PMCID: PMC52562.
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    191. Inhibition of protein kinase C by local anesthetics. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1991; 625:743-6. Trudell JR, Costa AK, Hubbell WL. PMID: 2058922.
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    192. A single tryptic fragment of colicin E1 can form an ion channel: stoichiometry confirms kinetics. Proteins. 1991; 11(4):254-62. Levinthal F, Todd AP, Hubbell WL, Levinthal C. PMID: 1722045.
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    193. Primary structure of peptides and ion channels. Role of amino acid side chains in voltage gating of melittin channels. Biophys J. 1990 Dec; 58(6):1367-75. Tosteson MT, Alvarez O, Hubbell W, Bieganski RM, Attenbach C, Caporales LH, Levy JJ, Nutt RF, Rosenblatt M, Tosteson DC. PMID: 1703448; PMCID: PMC1281090.
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    194. Invertebrate rhodopsin cleavage by an endogenous calcium activated protease. Exp Eye Res. 1990 Oct; 51(4):463-72. Oldenburg KR, Hubbell WL. PMID: 2209756.
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    195. Transmembrane protein structure: spin labeling of bacteriorhodopsin mutants. Science. 1990 Jun 01; 248(4959):1088-92. Altenbach C, Marti T, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 2160734.
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    196. Distribution of charge on photoreceptor disc membranes and implications for charged lipid asymmetry. Biophys J. 1990 Jan; 57(1):85-97. Tsui FC, Sundberg SA, Hubbell WL. PMID: 2153422; PMCID: PMC1280645.
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    197. Transbilayer coupling mechanism for the formation of lipid asymmetry in biological membranes. Application to the photoreceptor disc membrane. Biophys J. 1990 Jan; 57(1):99-108. Hubbell WL. PMID: 2297564; PMCID: PMC1280646.
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    198. Conformation of spin-labeled melittin at membrane surfaces investigated by pulse saturation recovery and continuous wave power saturation electron paramagnetic resonance. Biophys J. 1989 Dec; 56(6):1183-91. Altenbach C, Froncisz W, Hyde JS, Hubbell WL. PMID: 2558734; PMCID: PMC1280621.
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    199. Structural studies on transmembrane proteins. 2. Spin labeling of bacteriorhodopsin mutants at unique cysteines. Biochemistry. 1989 Sep 19; 28(19):7806-12. Altenbach C, Flitsch SL, Khorana HG, Hubbell WL. PMID: 2558712.
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    200. Site-directed mutagenesis of colicin E1 provides specific attachment sites for spin labels whose spectra are sensitive to local conformation. Proteins. 1989; 6(3):294-305. Todd AP, Cong J, Levinthal F, Levinthal C, Hubbell WL. PMID: 2560193.
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    201. The aggregation state of spin-labeled melittin in solution and bound to phospholipid membranes: evidence that membrane-bound melittin is monomeric. Proteins. 1988; 3(4):230-42. Altenbach C, Hubbell WL. PMID: 2843850.
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    202. The intrinsic pKa values for phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in phosphatidylcholine host bilayers. Biophys J. 1986 Feb; 49(2):459-68. Tsui FC, Ojcius DM, Hubbell WL. PMID: 3955180; PMCID: PMC1329485.
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    203. Hydrophobic ion interactions with membranes. Thermodynamic analysis of tetraphenylphosphonium binding to vesicles. Biophys J. 1986 Feb; 49(2):531-40. Flewelling RF, Hubbell WL. PMID: 3006814; PMCID: PMC1329493.
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    204. Investigation of surface potential asymmetry in phospholipid vesicles by a spin label relaxation method. Biophys J. 1986 Feb; 49(2):553-62. Sundberg SA, Hubbell WL. PMID: 3006815; PMCID: PMC1329495.
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    205. The membrane dipole potential in a total membrane potential model. Applications to hydrophobic ion interactions with membranes. Biophys J. 1986 Feb; 49(2):541-52. Flewelling RF, Hubbell WL. PMID: 3955184; PMCID: PMC1329494.
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    206. Electrostatic interactions in membranes and proteins. Annu Rev Biophys Biophys Chem. 1986; 15:163-93. Honig BH, Hubbell WL, Flewelling RF. PMID: 2424473.
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    207. Effects of lipid environment on the light-induced conformational changes of rhodopsin. 1. Absence of metarhodopsin II production in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine recombinant membranes. Biochemistry. 1985 May 21; 24(11):2624-32. Baldwin PA, Hubbell WL. PMID: 4027217.
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    208. Effects of lipid environment on the light-induced conformational changes of rhodopsin. 2. Roles of lipid chain length, unsaturation, and phase state. Biochemistry. 1985 May 21; 24(11):2633-9. Baldwin PA, Hubbell WL. PMID: 4027218.
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    209. Stability of "salt bridges" in membrane proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Sep; 81(17):5412-6. Honig BH, Hubbell WL. PMID: 6591197; PMCID: PMC391714.
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    210. Electrogenic H+/OH- movement across phospholipid vesicles measured by spin-labeled hydrophobic ions. Biophys J. 1983 Oct; 44(1):49-57. Cafiso DS, Hubbell WL. PMID: 6313085; PMCID: PMC1434809.
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    213. Iodination of rhodopsin and transmembrane topology. Methods Enzymol. 1982; 81:269-75. Fung BK, Hubbell WL. PMID: 7098869.
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    214. Immunospecific targeting of liposomes to cells: a novel and efficient method for covalent attachment of Fab' fragments via disulfide bonds. Biochemistry. 1981 Jul 07; 20(14):4229-38. Martin FJ, Hubbell WL, Papahadjopoulos D. PMID: 7284322.
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    218. Additional component required for activity and reconstitution of light-activated vertebrate photoreceptor GTPase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Mar; 77(3):1408-11. Shinozawa T, Uchida S, Martin E, Cafiso D, Hubbell W, Bitensky M. PMID: 6103534; PMCID: PMC348504.
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    219. The structure and chemistry of rhodopsin: relationship to models of function. Soc Gen Physiol Ser. 1979; 33:17-25. Hubbell WL, Fung BK. PMID: 424781.
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    220. Visual transduction in vertebrate photoreceptors. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1979; 2:17-34. Hubbell WL, Bownds MD. PMID: 231925.
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    222. Organization of rhodopsin in photoreceptor membranes. 1. Proteolysis of bovine rhodopsin in native membranes and the distribution of sulfhydryl groups in the fragments. Biochemistry. 1978 Oct 17; 17(21):4396-402. Fung BK, Hubbell WL. PMID: 718846.
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    225. Reactions of the sulfhydryl groups of membrane-bound bovine rhodopsin. Membr Biochem. 1978; 1(1-2):107-30. Chen YS, Hubbell WL. PMID: 41159.
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    226. Activities of lectins and their immobilized derivatives in detergent solutions. Implications on the use of lectin affinity chromatography for the purification of membrane glycoproteins. Biochemistry. 1977 May 03; 16(9):1787-94. Lotan R, Beattie G, Hubbell W, Nicolson GL. PMID: 66931.
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    227. Estimation of membrane surface potential and charge density from the phase equilibrium of a paramagnetic amphiphile. Biochemistry. 1976 Nov 02; 15(22):4818-31. Castle JD, Hubbell WL. PMID: 186095.
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    228. Localization of molecular halothane in phospholipid bilayer model nerve membranes. Anesthesiology. 1976 Mar; 44(3):202-5. Trudell JR, Hubbell WL. PMID: 1267886.
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    229. The noncovalent coupling of rhodopsin and phosphatidylcholines. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1973 Dec 31; 222:523-9. Hong K, Chen YS, Hubbell WL. PMID: 4361866.
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    230. Electron spin resonance studies with the volatile anesthetics on phospholipid model membranes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1973 Dec 31; 222:530-8. Trudell JR, Hubbell WL, Cohen EN. PMID: 4361867.
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    231. Temperature- and light-dependent structural changes in rhodopsin-lipid membranes. Exp Eye Res. 1973 Dec 24; 17(6):517-32. Chen YS, Hubbell WL. PMID: 4782838.
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    232. Lipid requirements for Rhodopsin regenerability. Biochemistry. 1973 Oct 23; 12(22):4517-23. Hong K, Hubbell WL. PMID: 4356243.
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    233. Pressure reversal of anesthesia: the extent of small-molecule exclusion from spin-labeled phospholipid model membranes. Anesthesiology. 1973 Mar; 38(3):207-11. Trudell JR, Hubbell WL, Cohen EN, Kendig JJ. PMID: 4348999.
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    234. The effect of two inhalation anesthetics on the order of spin-labeled phospholipid vesicles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1973 Jan 26; 291(2):321-7. Trudell JR, Hubbell WL, Cohen EN. PMID: 4347901.
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    235. Pressure reversal of inhalation anesthetic-induced disorder in spin-labeled phospholipid vesicles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1973 Jan 26; 291(2):328-34. Trudell JR, Hubbell WL, Cohen EN. PMID: 4347902.
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    236. Lateral phase separations in membranes. J Supramol Struct. 1973; 1(4):285-94. Shimshick EJ, Kleemann W, Hubbell WL, McConnell HM. PMID: 4588281.
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    237. Rhodopsin-lipid interactions. J Supramol Struct. 1973; 1(4):355. Hong K, Chen YS, Hubbell WL. PMID: 4358442.
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    238. Preparation and properties of phospholipid bilayers containing rhodopsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972 Sep; 69(9):2617-21. Hong K, Hubbell WL. PMID: 4341702; PMCID: PMC427001.
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    239. Carriers and specificity in membranes. 3. Carrier-facilitated transport. Molecular motion in phospholipid bilayers and biomembranes. Neurosci Res Program Bull. 1971 Jun; 9(3):357-61. Hubbell WL. PMID: 4367591.
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    240. Molecular motion in spin-labeled phospholipids and membranes. J Am Chem Soc. 1971 Jan 27; 93(2):314-26. Hubbell WL, McConnell HM. PMID: 5541516.
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    241. The interaction of small molecules with spin-labelled erythrocyte membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1970 Dec 01; 219(2):415-27. Hubbell WL, Metcalfe JC, Metcalfe SM, McConnell HM. PMID: 4322299.
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    242. Motion of fatty acid spin labels in the plasma membrane of mycoplasma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1970; 219(1):104-13. Rottem S, Hubbell WL, Hayflick L, McConnell HM. PMID: 4319690.
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    243. Orientation and motion of amphiphilic spin labels in membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1969 Sep; 64(1):20-7. Hubbell WL, McConnell HM. PMID: 4312749; PMCID: PMC286120.
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    244. Motion of steroid spin labels in membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1969 May; 63(1):16-22. Hubbell WL, McConnell HM. PMID: 16591744; PMCID: PMC534016.
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    245. Magnetic resonance studies of anaesthetics in cyto-membranes. Br J Pharmacol. 1969 Feb; 35(2):P374-5. Hubbell WL, McConnell HM, Metcalfe JC. PMID: 4304428; PMCID: PMC1703243.
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    246. Spin-label studies of the excitable membranes of nerve and muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1968 Sep; 61(1):12-6. Hubbell WL, McConnell HM. PMID: 4301585; PMCID: PMC285897.
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