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Voskuhl Rhonda

Title(s)Jack H. Skirball Chair, Multiple Sclerosis Research
Phone(310) 206-4636
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Director, Multiple Sclerosis Program

    Title(s)Professor, Neurology

    Title(s)Professor In-Residence, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Neuroprotection in MS: A Cell-Specific and Region-Specific Transcriptomics Approach
    NIH/NINDS R01NS109670Sep 30, 2018 - May 31, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Parental imprinting of the X chromosome: effects on neurodegeneration
    NIH/NINDS R01NS096748Sep 1, 2016 - Jun 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Sex differences in the CNS during disease
    NIH/NINDS R21NS071210Jun 1, 2010 - May 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis with Sex Hormones
    NIH/NINDS K24NS062117Apr 1, 2008 - Mar 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Sex Chromosome Effects in Lupus
    NIH/NIAID R21AI070306Mar 1, 2007 - Feb 28, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    A Combination Trial of Copaxone plus Estriol in RRMS
    NIH/NINDS R01NS051591Apr 1, 2005 - Apr 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Protective Effect of Pregnancy Doses of Estrogens in EAE
    NIH/NINDS R01NS045443Aug 15, 2002 - Jul 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The Effect of Sex Chromosomes on Immune Responses
    NIH/NIAID R01AI050839Feb 1, 2002 - Jan 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IMMUNE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING GENDER DIFFERENCES IN EAE
    NIH/NINDS R01NS036680Aug 1, 1997 - May 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Golden LC, Itoh Y, Itoh N, Iyengar S, Coit P, Salama Y, Arnold AP, Sawalha AH, Voskuhl RR. Parent-of-origin differences in DNA methylation of X chromosome genes in T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Dec 10. PMID: 31822606.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Itoh Y, Golden LC, Itoh N, Matsukawa MA, Ren E, Tse V, Arnold AP, Voskuhl RR. The X-linked histone demethylase Kdm6a in CD4+ T lymphocytes modulates autoimmunity. J Clin Invest. 2019 Aug 12; 130:3852-3863. PMID: 31403472.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Tassoni A, Farkhondeh V, Itoh Y, Itoh N, Sofroniew MV, Voskuhl RR. The astrocyte transcriptome in EAE optic neuritis shows complement activation and reveals a sex difference in astrocytic C3 expression. Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 10; 9(1):10010. PMID: 31292459.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Voskuhl RR, Itoh N, Tassoni A, Matsukawa MA, Ren E, Tse V, Jang E, Suen TT, Itoh Y. Gene expression in oligodendrocytes during remyelination reveals cholesterol homeostasis as a therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 May 14; 116(20):10130-10139. PMID: 31040210.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Voskuhl R, Klein S. Sex is a biological variable - in the brain too. Nature. 2019 04; 568(7751):171. PMID: 30967673.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Meyer CE, Gao JL, Cheng JY, Oberoi MR, Johnsonbaugh H, Lepore S, Kurth F, Thurston MJ, Itoh N, Patel KR, Voskuhl RR, MacKenzie-Graham A. Axonal damage in spinal cord is associated with gray matter atrophy in sensorimotor cortex in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mult Scler. 2019 Mar 07; 1352458519830614. PMID: 30843756.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Kammel LG, Wei W, Jami SA, Voskuhl RR, O'Dell TJ. Enhanced GABAergic Tonic Inhibition Reduces Intrinsic Excitability of Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Cells in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Neuroscience. 2018 12 15; 395:89-100. PMID: 30447391.
      View in: PubMed
    8. MacKenzie-Graham A, Brook J, Kurth F, Itoh Y, Meyer C, Montag MJ, Wang HJ, Elashoff R, Voskuhl RR. Estriol-mediated neuroprotection in multiple sclerosis localized by voxel-based morphometry. Brain Behav. 2018 09; 8(9):e01086. PMID: 30144306.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Voskuhl R. It is time to conduct phase 3 clinical trials of sex hormones in MS - Yes. Mult Scler. 2018 10; 24(11):1413-1415. PMID: 30058469.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Kim RY, Mangu D, Hoffman AS, Kavosh R, Jung E, Itoh N, Voskuhl R. Oestrogen receptor β ligand acts on CD11c+ cells to mediate protection in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brain. 2018 01 01; 141(1):132-147. PMID: 29228214.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Voskuhl RR, Sawalha AH, Itoh Y. Sex chromosome contributions to sex differences in multiple sclerosis susceptibility and progression. Mult Scler. 2018 01; 24(1):22-31. PMID: 29307297.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Itoh N, Itoh Y, Tassoni A, Ren E, Kaito M, Ohno A, Ao Y, Farkhondeh V, Johnsonbaugh H, Burda J, Sofroniew MV, Voskuhl RR. Cell-specific and region-specific transcriptomics in the multiple sclerosis model: Focus on astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 01 09; 115(2):E302-E309. PMID: 29279367.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Voskuhl R, Momtazee C. Pregnancy: Effect on Multiple Sclerosis, Treatment Considerations, and Breastfeeding. Neurotherapeutics. 2017 Oct; 14(4):974-984. PMID: 28766273.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Itoh Y, Voskuhl RR. Cell specificity dictates similarities in gene expression in multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. PLoS One. 2017; 12(7):e0181349. PMID: 28715462.
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    15. Klein RS, Voskuhl R, Segal BM, Dittel BN, Lane TE, Bethea JR, Carson MJ, Colton C, Rosi S, Anderson A, Piccio L, Goverman JM, Benveniste EN, Brown MA, Tiwari-Woodruff SK, Harris TH, Cross AH. Speaking out about gender imbalance in invited speakers improves diversity. Nat Immunol. 2017 04 18; 18(5):475-478. PMID: 28418385.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Golden LC, Voskuhl R. The importance of studying sex differences in disease: The example of multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci Res. 2017 01 02; 95(1-2):633-643. PMID: 27870415.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Itoh N, Kim R, Peng M, DiFilippo E, Johnsonbaugh H, MacKenzie-Graham A, Voskuhl RR. Bedside to bench to bedside research: Estrogen receptor beta ligand as a candidate neuroprotective treatment for multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2017 03 15; 304:63-71. PMID: 27771018.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Voskuhl R, Patti F. Hormone replacement in menopausal women with multiple sclerosis: Looking back, thinking forward. Neurology. 2016 10 04; 87(14):1430-1431. PMID: 27605172.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Gold SM, Voskuhl RR. Pregnancy and multiple sclerosis: from molecular mechanisms to clinical application. Semin Immunopathol. 2016 11; 38(6):709-718. PMID: 27501960.
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    20. MacKenzie-Graham A, Kurth F, Itoh Y, Wang HJ, Montag MJ, Elashoff R, Voskuhl RR. Disability-Specific Atlases of Gray Matter Loss in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis. JAMA Neurol. 2016 Aug 01; 73(8):944-53. PMID: 27294295.
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    21. Voskuhl R. Rebound Relapses After Ceasing Another Disease-Modifying Treatment in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: Are There Lessons to Be Learned? JAMA Neurol. 2016 07 01; 73(7):775-6. PMID: 27136400.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Voskuhl R, Wang H, Elashoff RM. Why use sex hormones in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis? - Authors' reply. Lancet Neurol. 2016 07; 15(8):790-791. PMID: 27302354.
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    23. Voskuhl R. Preclinical studies of sex differences: a clinical perspective. Biol Sex Differ. 2016; 7:7. PMID: 26807212.
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    24. Voskuhl RR, Wang H, Wu TC, Sicotte NL, Nakamura K, Kurth F, Itoh N, Bardens J, Bernard JT, Corboy JR, Cross AH, Dhib-Jalbut S, Ford CC, Frohman EM, Giesser B, Jacobs D, Kasper LH, Lynch S, Parry G, Racke MK, Reder AT, Rose J, Wingerchuk DM, MacKenzie-Graham AJ, Arnold DL, Tseng CH, Elashoff R. Estriol combined with glatiramer acetate for women with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet Neurol. 2016 Jan; 15(1):35-46. PMID: 26621682.
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    25. Kim RY, Hoffman AS, Itoh N, Ao Y, Spence R, Sofroniew MV, Voskuhl RR. Astrocyte CCL2 sustains immune cell infiltration in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Sep 15; 274(1-2):53-61. PMID: 25005117.
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    26. Kurth F, Luders E, Sicotte NL, Gaser C, Giesser BS, Swerdloff RS, Montag MJ, Voskuhl RR, Mackenzie-Graham A. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone treatment in men with multiple sclerosis. Neuroimage Clin. 2014; 4:454-60. PMID: 24634831.
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    27. Du S, Itoh N, Askarinam S, Hill H, Arnold AP, Voskuhl RR. XY sex chromosome complement, compared with XX, in the CNS confers greater neurodegeneration during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Feb 18; 111(7):2806-11. PMID: 24550311.
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    28. Ghandour S, Voskuhl R, Schumacher M. The androgen receptor as a therapeutic target for myelin repair in demyelinating diseases. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jan; 9(1):5-7. PMID: 30743734.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Spence RD, Wisdom AJ, Cao Y, Hill HM, Mongerson CR, Stapornkul B, Itoh N, Sofroniew MV, Voskuhl RR. Estrogen mediates neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory effects during EAE through ERa signaling on astrocytes but not through ERß signaling on astrocytes or neurons. J Neurosci. 2013 Jun 26; 33(26):10924-33. PMID: 23804112.
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    30. Wisdom AJ, Cao Y, Itoh N, Spence RD, Voskuhl RR. Estrogen receptor-ß ligand treatment after disease onset is neuroprotective in the multiple sclerosis model. J Neurosci Res. 2013 Jul; 91(7):901-8. PMID: 23633287.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Voskuhl RR. Assisted reproduction technology in multiple sclerosis: giving birth to a new avenue of research in hormones and autoimmunity. Ann Neurol. 2012 Nov; 72(5):631-2. PMID: 23280787.
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    32. Ziehn MO, Avedisian AA, Dervin SM, Umeda EA, O'Dell TJ, Voskuhl RR. Therapeutic testosterone administration preserves excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus during autoimmune demyelinating disease. J Neurosci. 2012 Sep 05; 32(36):12312-24. PMID: 22956822.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Gold SM, Sasidhar MV, Lagishetty V, Spence RD, Umeda E, Ziehn MO, Krieger T, Schulz KH, Heesen C, Hewison M, Voskuhl RR. Dynamic development of glucocorticoid resistance during autoimmune neuroinflammation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Aug; 97(8):E1402-10. PMID: 22659246.
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    34. Sasidhar MV, Itoh N, Gold SM, Lawson GW, Voskuhl RR. The XX sex chromosome complement in mice is associated with increased spontaneous lupus compared with XY. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Aug; 71(8):1418-22. PMID: 22580585.
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    35. Ziehn MO, Avedisian AA, Dervin SM, O'Dell TJ, Voskuhl RR. Estriol preserves synaptic transmission in the hippocampus during autoimmune demyelinating disease. Lab Invest. 2012 Aug; 92(8):1234-45. PMID: 22525427.
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    36. Voskuhl RR, Gold SM. Sex-related factors in multiple sclerosis susceptibility and progression. Nat Rev Neurol. 2012 Mar 27; 8(5):255-63. PMID: 22450508.
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    37. MacKenzie-Graham AJ, Rinek GA, Avedisian A, Morales LB, Umeda E, Boulat B, Jacobs RE, Toga AW, Voskuhl RR. Estrogen treatment prevents gray matter atrophy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neurosci Res. 2012 Jul; 90(7):1310-23. PMID: 22411609.
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    38. Daumer M, Weinshenker BG, Voskuhl R. Pregnancy: a "modifiable" risk factor in MS? Neurology. 2012 Mar 20; 78(12):846-8. PMID: 22402865.
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    39. Spence RD, Voskuhl RR. Neuroprotective effects of estrogens and androgens in CNS inflammation and neurodegeneration. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2012 Jan; 33(1):105-15. PMID: 22209870.
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    40. MacKenzie-Graham A, Rinek GA, Avedisian A, Gold SM, Frew AJ, Aguilar C, Lin DR, Umeda E, Voskuhl RR, Alger JR. Cortical atrophy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: in vivo imaging. Neuroimage. 2012 Mar; 60(1):95-104. PMID: 22182769.
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    41. Spence RD, Hamby ME, Umeda E, Itoh N, Du S, Wisdom AJ, Cao Y, Bondar G, Lam J, Ao Y, Sandoval F, Suriany S, Sofroniew MV, Voskuhl RR. Neuroprotection mediated through estrogen receptor-alpha in astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 May 24; 108(21):8867-72. PMID: 21555578.
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    42. Voskuhl R. Sex differences in autoimmune diseases. Biol Sex Differ. 2011 Jan 04; 2(1):1. PMID: 21208397.
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    43. Du S, Sandoval F, Trinh P, Umeda E, Voskuhl R. Estrogen receptor-ß ligand treatment modulates dendritic cells in the target organ during autoimmune demyelinating disease. Eur J Immunol. 2011 Jan; 41(1):140-50. PMID: 21182085.
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    44. Mangiardi M, Crawford DK, Xia X, Du S, Simon-Freeman R, Voskuhl RR, Tiwari-Woodruff SK. An animal model of cortical and callosal pathology in multiple sclerosis. Brain Pathol. 2011 May; 21(3):263-78. PMID: 21029240.
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    45. Crawford DK, Mangiardi M, Song B, Patel R, Du S, Sofroniew MV, Voskuhl RR, Tiwari-Woodruff SK. Oestrogen receptor beta ligand: a novel treatment to enhance endogenous functional remyelination. Brain. 2010 Oct; 133(10):2999-3016. PMID: 20858739.
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    46. Ziehn MO, Avedisian AA, Tiwari-Woodruff S, Voskuhl RR. Hippocampal CA1 atrophy and synaptic loss during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, EAE. Lab Invest. 2010 May; 90(5):774-86. PMID: 20157291.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Du S, Sandoval F, Trinh P, Voskuhl RR. Additive effects of combination treatment with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agents in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2010 Feb 26; 219(1-2):64-74. PMID: 20006910.
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    48. Voskuhl RR, Peterson RS, Song B, Ao Y, Morales LB, Tiwari-Woodruff S, Sofroniew MV. Reactive astrocytes form scar-like perivascular barriers to leukocytes during adaptive immune inflammation of the CNS. J Neurosci. 2009 Sep 16; 29(37):11511-22. PMID: 19759299.
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    49. Gold SM, Sasidhar MV, Morales LB, Du S, Sicotte NL, Tiwari-Woodruff SK, Voskuhl RR. Estrogen treatment decreases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in autoimmune demyelinating disease through estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). Lab Invest. 2009 Oct; 89(10):1076-83. PMID: 19668239.
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    50. MacKenzie-Graham A, Tiwari-Woodruff SK, Sharma G, Aguilar C, Vo KT, Strickland LV, Morales L, Fubara B, Martin M, Jacobs RE, Johnson GA, Toga AW, Voskuhl RR. Purkinje cell loss in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Neuroimage. 2009 Dec; 48(4):637-51. PMID: 19589388.
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    51. Gold SM, Voskuhl RR. Estrogen treatment in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2009 Nov 15; 286(1-2):99-103. PMID: 19539954.
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    52. Tiwari-Woodruff S, Voskuhl RR. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen receptor ligand treatment in mice. J Neurol Sci. 2009 Nov 15; 286(1-2):81-5. PMID: 19442988.
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    53. Gold SM, Voskuhl RR. Estrogen and testosterone therapies in multiple sclerosis. Prog Brain Res. 2009; 175:239-51. PMID: 19660660.
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    54. Voskuhl R, Wu TC. Do estroprogestinic hormones protect against chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in multiple sclerosis? Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2009 Jan; 5(1):18-9. PMID: 19030003.
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    55. Gold SM, Chalifoux S, Giesser BS, Voskuhl RR. Immune modulation and increased neurotrophic factor production in multiple sclerosis patients treated with testosterone. J Neuroinflammation. 2008 Jul 31; 5:32. PMID: 18671877.
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    56. Wu J, Ohlsson M, Warner EA, Loo KK, Hoang TX, Voskuhl RR, Havton LA. Glial reactions and degeneration of myelinated processes in spinal cord gray matter in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Neuroscience. 2008 Oct 15; 156(3):586-96. PMID: 18718511.
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    57. Smith-Bouvier DL, Divekar AA, Sasidhar M, Du S, Tiwari-Woodruff SK, King JK, Arnold AP, Singh RR, Voskuhl RR. A role for sex chromosome complement in the female bias in autoimmune disease. J Exp Med. 2008 May 12; 205(5):1099-108. PMID: 18443225.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Tiwari-Woodruff S, Morales LB, Lee R, Voskuhl RR. Differential neuroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta ligand treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 11; 104(37):14813-8. PMID: 17785421.
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    59. Sicotte NL, Giesser BS, Tandon V, Klutch R, Steiner B, Drain AE, Shattuck DW, Hull L, Wang HJ, Elashoff RM, Swerdloff RS, Voskuhl RR. Testosterone treatment in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Arch Neurol. 2007 May; 64(5):683-8. PMID: 17502467.
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    60. Smith DL, Dong X, Du S, Oh M, Singh RR, Voskuhl RR. A female preponderance for chemically induced lupus in SJL/J mice. Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan; 122(1):101-7. PMID: 17084107.
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    61. Gold SM, Voskuhl RR. Testosterone replacement therapy for the treatment of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Jul; 7(7):625-30. PMID: 16869115.
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    62. MacKenzie-Graham A, Tinsley MR, Shah KP, Aguilar C, Strickland LV, Boline J, Martin M, Morales L, Shattuck DW, Jacobs RE, Voskuhl RR, Toga AW. Cerebellar cortical atrophy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Neuroimage. 2006 Sep; 32(3):1016-23. PMID: 16806982.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Morales LB, Loo KK, Liu HB, Peterson C, Tiwari-Woodruff S, Voskuhl RR. Treatment with an estrogen receptor alpha ligand is neuroprotective in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neurosci. 2006 Jun 21; 26(25):6823-33. PMID: 16793889.
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    64. Palaszynski KM, Smith DL, Kamrava S, Burgoyne PS, Arnold AP, Voskuhl RR. A yin-yang effect between sex chromosome complement and sex hormones on the immune response. Endocrinology. 2005 Aug; 146(8):3280-5. PMID: 15905317.
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    65. Liu H, Ding Y, Voskuhl RR. Method to detect functional estrogen receptor expression using estrogen receptor probing compound. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2005; 26(4):295-301. PMID: 16153014.
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    66. Palaszynski KM, Liu H, Loo KK, Voskuhl RR. Estriol treatment ameliorates disease in males with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: implications for multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Apr; 149(1-2):84-9. PMID: 15020068.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Soldan SS, Alvarez Retuerto AI, Sicotte NL, Voskuhl RR. Dysregulation of IL-10 and IL-12p40 in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Jan; 146(1-2):209-15. PMID: 14698865.
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    68. Palaszynski KM, Loo KK, Ashouri JF, Liu HB, Voskuhl RR. Androgens are protective in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: implications for multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Jan; 146(1-2):144-52. PMID: 14698857.
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    69. Liu HB, Loo KK, Palaszynski K, Ashouri J, Lubahn DB, Voskuhl RR. Estrogen receptor alpha mediates estrogen's immune protection in autoimmune disease. J Immunol. 2003 Dec 15; 171(12):6936-40. PMID: 14662901.
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    70. Soldan SS, Alvarez Retuerto AI, Sicotte NL, Voskuhl RR. Immune modulation in multiple sclerosis patients treated with the pregnancy hormone estriol. J Immunol. 2003 Dec 01; 171(11):6267-74. PMID: 14634144.
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    71. Sicotte NL, Voskuhl RR, Bouvier S, Klutch R, Cohen MS, Mazziotta JC. Comparison of multiple sclerosis lesions at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla. Invest Radiol. 2003 Jul; 38(7):423-7. PMID: 12821856.
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    72. Voskuhl RR, Pribyl TM, Kampf K, Handley V, Liu HB, Feng J, Campagnoni CW, Soldan SS, Messing A, Campagnoni AT. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis relapses are reduced in heterozygous golli MBP knockout mice. J Neuroimmunol. 2003 Jun; 139(1-2):44-50. PMID: 12799019.
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    73. Sicotte NL, Liva SM, Klutch R, Pfeiffer P, Bouvier S, Odesa S, Wu TC, Voskuhl RR. Treatment of multiple sclerosis with the pregnancy hormone estriol. Ann Neurol. 2002 Oct; 52(4):421-8. PMID: 12325070.
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    74. Voskuhl RR. Gender issues and multiple sclerosis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2002 May; 2(3):277-86. PMID: 11937007.
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    75. Sicotte NL, Voskuhl RR. Onset of multiple sclerosis associated with anti-TNF therapy. Neurology. 2001 Nov 27; 57(10):1885-8. PMID: 11723281.
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    76. Liva SM, Voskuhl RR. Testosterone acts directly on CD4+ T lymphocytes to increase IL-10 production. J Immunol. 2001 Aug 15; 167(4):2060-7. PMID: 11489988.
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    77. Voskuhl RR, Palaszynski K. Sex hormones in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: implications for multiple sclerosis. Neuroscientist. 2001 Jun; 7(3):258-70. PMID: 11499404.
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    78. Liu H, MacKenzie-Graham AJ, Palaszynski K, Liva S, Voskuhl RR. "Classic" myelin basic proteins are expressed in lymphoid tissue macrophages. J Neuroimmunol. 2001 May 01; 116(1):83-93. PMID: 11311333.
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    79. Liu H, MacKenzie-Graham AJ, Kim S, Voskuhl RR. Mice resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis have increased thymic expression of myelin basic protein and increased MBP specific T cell tolerance. J Neuroimmunol. 2001 Apr 02; 115(1-2):118-26. PMID: 11282161.
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    80. Kim S, Voskuhl RR. Decreased IL-12 production underlies the decreased ability of male lymph node cells to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 1999 May 01; 162(9):5561-8. PMID: 10228038.
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    81. Kim S, Liva SM, Dalal MA, Verity MA, Voskuhl RR. Estriol ameliorates autoimmune demyelinating disease: implications for multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1999 Apr 12; 52(6):1230-8. PMID: 10214749.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Kahn MA, Dopp JM, Liva S, MacKenzie-Graham AJ, Chang R, Huang A, Nazarian R, Dell'Albani P, Condorelli D, Voskuhl RR, de Vellis J. Temporal kinetics and cellular phenotype of TNF p55/p75 receptors in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 1999 Mar 01; 95(1-2):19-34. PMID: 10229112.
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    83. Voskuhl RR. Myelin protein expression in lymphoid tissues: implications for peripheral tolerance. Immunol Rev. 1998 Aug; 164:81-92. PMID: 9795766.
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    84. Ding M, Zhang M, Wong JL, Rogers NE, Ignarro LJ, Voskuhl RR. Antisense knockdown of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibits induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice. J Immunol. 1998 Mar 15; 160(6):2560-4. PMID: 9510151.
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    85. MacKenzie-Graham AJ, Pribyl TM, Kim S, Porter VR, Campagnoni AT, Voskuhl RR. Myelin protein expression is increased in lymph nodes of mice with relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 1997 Nov 01; 159(9):4602-10. PMID: 9379062.
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    86. Dalal M, Kim S, Voskuhl RR. Testosterone therapy ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and induces a T helper 2 bias in the autoantigen-specific T lymphocyte response. J Immunol. 1997 Jul 01; 159(1):3-6. PMID: 9200430.
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    87. Ding M, Wong JL, Rogers NE, Ignarro LJ, Voskuhl RR. Gender differences of inducible nitric oxide production in SJL/J mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 1997 Jul; 77(1):99-106. PMID: 9209274.
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    88. Capello E, Voskuhl RR, McFarland HF, Raine CS. Multiple sclerosis: re-expression of a developmental gene in chronic lesions correlates with remyelination. Ann Neurol. 1997 Jun; 41(6):797-805. PMID: 9189041.
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    89. Nagasato K, Farris RW, Dubois-Dalcq M, Voskuhl RR. Exon 2 containing myelin basic protein (MBP) transcripts are expressed in lesions of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). J Neuroimmunol. 1997 Jan; 72(1):21-5. PMID: 9003242.
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    90. Ding M, Zhang M, Wong JL, Voskuhl RR, Ellison GW. Antisense blockade of inducible nitric oxide synthase in glial cells derived from adult SJL mice. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Dec 13; 220(2):89-92. PMID: 8981480.
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    91. Voskuhl RR, Farris RW, Nagasato K, McFarland HF, Dalcq MD. Epitope spreading occurs in active but not passive EAE induced by myelin basic protein. J Neuroimmunol. 1996 Nov; 70(2):103-11. PMID: 8898718.
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    92. Tranquill LR, Skinner E, Campagnoni C, Vergelli M, Hemmer B, Muraro P, Martin R, McFarland HF, Campagnoni AT, Voskuhl RR. Human T lymphocytes specific for the immunodominant 83-99 epitope of myelin basic protein: recognition of golli MBP HOG 7. J Neurosci Res. 1996 Sep 15; 45(6):820-8. PMID: 8892094.
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