Marcus Horwitz

Title(s)Professor, Medicine
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-6525-7147 Additional info
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Professor, MIMG

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New YorkA.B. Physics06/1968Physics
    Columbia University, New York, New YorkM.D.06/1972Medicine
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York06/1974Internship and Residency
    Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia06/1976Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York06/1977Fellowship Infectious Diseases
    The Rockefeller University, New York, New York06/1980Fellowship Cellular Physiology & Immunology
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Cornell University1968Phi Beta Kappa
    Cornell University1968cum laude in Physics and Distinction in All Subjects
    UC Berkeley1968National Science Foundation Fellowship, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory
    U.S. Army1975Certificate of Appreciation for services in the medical support of Operation New Life
    U.S Department of Health, Education and Welfare1975Certificate of Appreciation, Interagency Task Force for Indochina Refugees
    Center for Disease Control1976Alexander D. Langmuir Award
    National Institutes of Health 1977National Research Service Award
    American Cancer Society 1980Junior Faculty Research Award
    Hartford Foundation 1981Fellowship Award
    American Cancer Society 1985Faculty Research Award
    American Society of Clinical Investigation1985Election to Member
    American Society for Microbiology1989Divisional Lecture, Division B (Microbial Pathogenesis) 89th General Meeting
    MarDx1991James C. Feeley Award for Legionella Research (1st Annual Award)
    Infectious Diseases Society of America1991Oswald Avery (formerly Squibb) Award for Outstanding Research in Infectious Diseases
    MarDx1993James C. Feeley Award for Legionella Research
    American Association for the Advancement of Science1999Election to Fellow
    American Society for Microbiology 2001Divisional Lecture, Division U (Mycobacteriology) 101st Annual Meeting
    Elmira College2014Presidential Lecture
    University of Arizona2017Farness Lecturer

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    PRESCIENT: A phase IIc, open-label, randomized controlled trial of ultra-short course bedaquiline, clofazimine, pyrazinamide and delamanid versus standard therapy for drug-susceptible tuberculosis
    NIH U01AI170426Jul 7, 2022 - Apr 30, 2026
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Development of a novel TB vaccine safer and more effective than BCG based on a precisely controlled replication-limited Mycobacterium tuberculosis engineered for optimal in vivo growth and clearance
    NIH R01AI148122Mar 15, 2021 - Feb 28, 2026
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Composition, Atomic Structure and Function of the Francisella Type 6 Secretion System, a Distinct Subtype Essential for Phagosomal Escape, Intracellular Replication, and Virulence
    NIH R01AI151055Sep 21, 2020 - Aug 31, 2025
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Ultra-Short Course Treatment of Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis via Inhalation and Nanotherapeutic Delivery of Novel Drug Regimen
    Department of Defense W81XWH2010282May 15, 2020 - May 14, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development of a Safe and Potent Vaccine Against Melioidosis using the LVS dcapB Vector Platform
    NIH R01AI141390Jun 1, 2019 - May 31, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Composition, structure, and mutational analysis of the Francisella Type VI Secretion System
    NIH R56AI125497Apr 10, 2018 - Mar 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Optimization and Advanced Proof-of-Concept Studies of a Listeria-vectored Multi-Antigenic Vaccine against Tuberculosis
    NIH R01AI135631Dec 1, 2017 - Nov 30, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Identification by High Throughput Screening of Inhibitors of Assembly and Secretion of the Francisella Type VI Secretion System
    NIH R21AI123630Feb 1, 2016 - Jan 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Against Francisella tularensis
    NIH R01AI101189Jun 1, 2013 - May 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Against Francisella tularensis
    NIH R56AI101189Aug 1, 2012 - May 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development of a tularemia vaccine that is safer and more potent than LVS
    NIH R56AI084908Jul 6, 2010 - Jun 30, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    A TB Vaccine for AIDS Patients
    NIH R01AI068413Jan 15, 2006 - Dec 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Novel Antimicrobial Agents Against M. tuberculosis
    NIH R01AI055352Jul 15, 2004 - Oct 31, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Characterization of the Francisella tularensis phagosome
    NIH R21AI053403Sep 15, 2002 - Aug 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01AI042925Apr 1, 1998 - Mar 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Characterization of the M. tuberculosis phagosome
    NIH R01HL077000Sep 30, 1993 - Aug 31, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01AI035275Sep 30, 1993 - Jun 30, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01AI035189Sep 30, 1993 - Jun 30, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01AI033790Jan 1, 1993 - Dec 31, 1996
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development and Testing of New Tuberculosis Vaccines
    NIH R01AI031338Apr 1, 1991 - Feb 28, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01AI028825Feb 1, 1990 - Jan 31, 1996
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01AI025143Jul 1, 1988 - Jun 30, 1992
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R22AI025143Jul 1, 1988 - Jun 30, 1991
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01AI025681Sep 30, 1987 - Nov 30, 1991
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01AI022421Sep 1, 1985 - Jun 30, 1995
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH S10RR002334Jan 1, 1985 - Dec 31, 1985
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Efficacy and safety of an innovative short-course regimen containing clofazimine for treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis: a clinical trial. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2023 Dec; 12(1):2187247. Zheng X, Gui X, Yao L, Ma J, He Y, Lou H, Gu J, Ying R, Chen L, Sun Q, Liu Y, Ho CM, Lee BY, Clemens DL, Horwitz MA, Ding X, Hao X, Yang H, Sha W. PMID: 36872899; PMCID: PMC10026740.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    2. Oral Administration of Universal Bacterium-Vectored Nucleocapsid-Expressing COVID-19 Vaccine is Efficacious in Hamsters. Microbiol Spectr. 2023 Mar 14; e0503522. Jia Q, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Maison RM, Hartwig A, Masleša-Galic S, Bowen RA, Horwitz MA. PMID: 36916971; PMCID: PMC10100875.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Listeria-vectored multi-antigenic tuberculosis vaccine protects C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice and guinea pigs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. Commun Biol. 2022 12 20; 5(1):1388. Jia Q, Masleša-Galic S, Nava S, Horwitz MA. PMID: 36539517; PMCID: PMC9764316.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: Translation:AnimalsCells
    4. Atomic Structure of IglD Demonstrates Its Role as a Component of the Baseplate Complex of the Francisella Type VI Secretion System. mBio. 2022 10 26; 13(5):e0127722. Liu X, Clemens DL, Lee BY, Yang X, Zhou ZH, Horwitz MA. PMID: 36036641; PMCID: PMC9600919.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    5. Listeria-Vectored Multiantigenic Tuberculosis Vaccine Enhances Protective Immunity against Aerosol Challenge with Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in BCG-Immunized C57BL/6 and BALB/c Mice. mBio. 2022 06 28; 13(3):e0068722. Jia Q, Masleša-Galic S, Nava S, Horwitz MA. PMID: 35642945; PMCID: PMC9239278.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    6. Replicating bacterium-vectored vaccine expressing SARS-CoV-2 Membrane and Nucleocapsid proteins protects against severe COVID-19-like disease in hamsters. NPJ Vaccines. 2021 Mar 30; 6(1):47. Jia Q, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Maison RM, Masleša-Galic S, Cooper SK, Bowen RA, Horwitz MA. PMID: 33785745; PMCID: PMC8009914.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28  
    7. Early innate and adaptive immune perturbations determine long-term severity of chronic virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection. Immunity. 2021 03 09; 54(3):526-541.e7. Xu W, Snell LM, Guo M, Boukhaled G, Macleod BL, Li M, Tullius MV, Guidos CJ, Tsao MS, Divangahi M, Horwitz MA, Liu J, Brooks DG. PMID: 33515487; PMCID: PMC7946746.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. Replicating bacterium-vectored vaccine expressing SARS-CoV-2 Membrane and Nucleocapsid proteins protects against severe COVID-19 disease in hamsters. bioRxiv. 2020 Nov 18. Jia Q, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Maison R, Masleša-Galic S, Bowen R, Horwitz MA. PMID: 33236013; PMCID: PMC7685323.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    9. Atomic Structure of the Francisella T6SS Central Spike Reveals a Unique α-Helical Lid and a Putative Cargo. Structure. 2019 12 03; 27(12):1811-1819.e6. Yang X, Clemens DL, Lee BY, Cui Y, Zhou ZH, Horwitz MA. PMID: 31677891; PMCID: PMC6939872.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    10. AI-enabled parabolic response surface approach identifies ultra short-course near-universal TB drug regimens. Adv. Therap. 2019; 3:1900086. Horwitz, M.A., D.L. Clemens, and B-Y. Lee. View Publication.
    11. Backstories in Epidemiology: The babies are dying. 2019. Horwitz, M.A., C. Novick, and L.F. Novick. View Publication.
    12. Nanomachines and Other Caps on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery. Acc Chem Res. 2019 06 18; 52(6):1531-1542. Chen W, Glackin CA, Horwitz MA, Zink JI. PMID: 31082188.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    13. Artificial intelligence enabled parabolic response surface platform identifies ultra-rapid near-universal TB drug treatment regimens comprising approved drugs. PLoS One. 2019; 14(5):e0215607. Clemens DL, Lee BY, Silva A, Dillon BJ, Masleša-Galic S, Nava S, Ding X, Ho CM, Horwitz MA. PMID: 31075149; PMCID: PMC6510528.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    14. PPE37 Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Heme-Iron Acquisition (HIA), and a Defective PPE37 in Mycobacterium bovis BCG Prevents HIA. Infect Immun. 2019 02; 87(2). Tullius MV, Nava S, Horwitz MA. PMID: 30455201; PMCID: PMC6346139.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    15. Nanoparticle Formulation of Moxifloxacin and Intramuscular Route of Delivery Improve Antibiotic Pharmacokinetics and Treatment of Pneumonic Tularemia in a Mouse Model. ACS Infect Dis. 2019 02 08; 5(2):281-291. Clemens DL, Lee BY, Plamthottam S, Tullius MV, Wang R, Yu CJ, Li Z, Dillon BJ, Zink JI, Horwitz MA. PMID: 30480992.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. Ultra-rapid near universal TB drug regimen identified via parabolic response surface platform cures mice of both conventional and high susceptibility. PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0207469. Lee BY, Clemens DL, Silva A, Dillon BJ, Masleša-Galic S, Nava S, Ho CM, Horwitz MA. PMID: 30427938; PMCID: PMC6235396.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    17. Facile Strategy Enabling Both High Loading and High Release Amounts of the Water-Insoluble Drug Clofazimine Using Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2018 Sep 26; 10(38):31870-31881. Chen W, Cheng CA, Lee BY, Clemens DL, Huang WY, Horwitz MA, Zink JI. PMID: 30160469.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    
    18. Backstories in Epidemiology: The world’s deadliest poison. 2018. Marr, J.S. and M.A. Horwitz . . View Publication.
    19. Live Attenuated Tularemia Vaccines for Protection Against Respiratory Challenge With Virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018; 8:154. Jia Q, Horwitz MA. PMID: 29868510; PMCID: PMC5963219.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    20. Single vector platform vaccine protects against lethal respiratory challenge with Tier 1 select agents of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. Sci Rep. 2018 05 03; 8(1):7009. Jia Q, Bowen R, Dillon BJ, Masleša-Galic S, Chang BT, Kaidi AC, Horwitz MA. PMID: 29725025; PMCID: PMC5934503.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    21. The Francisella Type VI Secretion System. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018; 8:121. Clemens DL, Lee BY, Horwitz MA. PMID: 29740542; PMCID: PMC5924787.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    22. Listeria-Vectored Vaccine Expressing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 30-Kilodalton Major Secretory Protein via the Constitutively Active prfA* Regulon Boosts Mycobacterium bovis BCG Efficacy against Tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2017 Sep; 85(9). Jia Q, Dillon BJ, Masleša-Galic S, Horwitz MA. PMID: 28630063; PMCID: PMC5563566.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    
    23. A Pathogen-Specific Cargo Delivery Platform Based on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc. 2017 05 17; 139(19):6663-6668. Ruehle B, Clemens DL, Lee BY, Horwitz MA, Zink JI. PMID: 28437093.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    
    24. Endogenous hepcidin and its agonist mediate resistance to selected infections by clearing non-transferrin-bound iron. Blood. 2017 07 20; 130(3):245-257. Stefanova D, Raychev A, Arezes J, Ruchala P, Gabayan V, Skurnik M, Dillon BJ, Horwitz MA, Ganz T, Bulut Y, Nemeth E. PMID: 28465342; PMCID: PMC5520472.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    25. Drug regimens identified and optimized by output-driven platform markedly reduce tuberculosis treatment time. Nat Commun. 2017 01 24; 8:14183. Lee BY, Clemens DL, Silva A, Dillon BJ, Masleša-Galic S, Nava S, Ding X, Ho CM, Horwitz MA. PMID: 28117835; PMCID: PMC5287291.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    26. Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain deficient in capB and overexpressing the fusion protein of IglA, IglB, and IglC from the bfr promoter induces improved protection against F. tularensis respiratory challenge. Vaccine. 2016 09 22; 34(41):4969-4978. Jia Q, Bowen R, Lee BY, Dillon BJ, Masleša-Galic S, Horwitz MA. PMID: 27577555; PMCID: PMC5028307.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    27. Redox-Triggered Release of Moxifloxacin from Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Functionalized with Disulfide Snap-Tops Enhances Efficacy Against Pneumonic Tularemia in Mice. Small. 2016 Jul; 12(27):3690-702. Lee BY, Li Z, Clemens DL, Dillon BJ, Hwang AA, Zink JI, Horwitz MA. PMID: 27246117.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    28. Output-driven feedback system control platform optimizes combinatorial therapy of tuberculosis using a macrophage cell culture model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Apr 12; 113(15):E2172-9. Silva A, Lee BY, Clemens DL, Kee T, Ding X, Ho CM, Horwitz MA. PMID: 27035987; PMCID: PMC4839402.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    29. Type I and Type II Interferon Coordinately Regulate Suppressive Dendritic Cell Fate and Function during Viral Persistence. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jan; 12(1):e1005356. Cunningham CR, Champhekar A, Tullius MV, Dillon BJ, Zhen A, de la Fuente JR, Herskovitz J, Elsaesser H, Snell LM, Wilson EB, de la Torre JC, Kitchen SG, Horwitz MA, Bensinger SJ, Smale ST, Brooks DG. PMID: 26808628; PMCID: PMC4726812.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with pH-Sensitive Nanovalves for Delivery of Moxifloxacin Provide Improved Treatment of Lethal Pneumonic Tularemia. ACS Nano. 2015 Nov 24; 9(11):10778-89. Li Z, Clemens DL, Lee BY, Dillon BJ, Horwitz MA, Zink JI. PMID: 26435204.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. Tuberculosis: pH-Responsive Isoniazid-Loaded Nanoparticles Markedly Improve Tuberculosis Treatment in Mice (Small 38/2015). Small. 2015 Oct; 11(38):5065. Hwang AA, Lee BY, Clemens DL, Dillon BJ, Zink JI, Horwitz MA. PMID: 26450161.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    32. pH-Responsive Isoniazid-Loaded Nanoparticles Markedly Improve Tuberculosis Treatment in Mice. Small. 2015 Oct; 11(38):5066-78. Hwang AA, Lee BY, Clemens DL, Dillon BJ, Zink JI, Horwitz MA. PMID: 26193431; PMCID: PMC5628743.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    33. Massively parallel delivery of large cargo into mammalian cells with light pulses. Nat Methods. 2015 May; 12(5):439-44. Wu YC, Wu TH, Clemens DL, Lee BY, Wen X, Horwitz MA, Teitell MA, Chiou PY. PMID: 25849636; PMCID: PMC5082232.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    34. Atomic structure of T6SS reveals interlaced array essential to function. Cell. 2015 Feb 26; 160(5):940-951. Clemens DL, Ge P, Lee BY, Horwitz MA, Zhou ZH. PMID: 25723168; PMCID: PMC4351867.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 89     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    35. rBCG30-induced immunity and cross-protection against Mycobacterium leprae challenge are enhanced by boosting with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 30-kilodalton antigen 85B. Infect Immun. 2014 Sep; 82(9):3900-9. Gillis TP, Tullius MV, Horwitz MA. PMID: 25001602; PMCID: PMC4187824.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    36. The exochelins of pathogenic mycobacteria: unique, highly potent, lipid- and water-soluble hexadentate iron chelators with multiple potential therapeutic uses. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2014 Dec 01; 21(16):2246-61. Horwitz LD, Horwitz MA. PMID: 24684595; PMCID: PMC4224048.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    37. Characterization of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis nanocompartment and its potential cargo proteins. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jun 27; 289(26):18279-89. Contreras H, Joens MS, McMath LM, Le VP, Tullius MV, Kimmey JM, Bionghi N, Horwitz MA, Fitzpatrick JA, Goulding CW. PMID: 24855650; PMCID: PMC4140288.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    38. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine-mediated neuroprotection is associated with regulatory T-cell induction in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci Res. 2013 Oct; 91(10):1292-302. Lacan G, Dang H, Middleton B, Horwitz MA, Tian J, Melega WP, Kaufman DL. PMID: 23907992; PMCID: PMC5800426.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. A heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy comprising the Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain capB mutant and recombinant attenuated Listeria monocytogenes expressing F. tularensis IglC induces potent protective immunity in mice against virulent F. tularensis aerosol challenge. Infect Immun. 2013 May; 81(5):1550-61. Jia Q, Bowen R, Sahakian J, Dillon BJ, Horwitz MA. PMID: 23439306; PMCID: PMC3647989.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    40. Targeted intracellular delivery of antituberculosis drugs to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages via functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 May; 56(5):2535-45. Clemens DL, Lee BY, Xue M, Thomas CR, Meng H, Ferris D, Nel AE, Zink JI, Horwitz MA. PMID: 22354311; PMCID: PMC3346638.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 57     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    41. O-antigen-deficient Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain mutants are ingested via an aberrant form of looping phagocytosis and show altered kinetics of intracellular trafficking in human macrophages. Infect Immun. 2012 Mar; 80(3):952-67. Clemens DL, Lee BY, Horwitz MA. PMID: 22202123; PMCID: PMC3294633.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    42. Intravital imaging reveals limited antigen presentation and T cell effector function in mycobacterial granulomas. Immunity. 2011 May 27; 34(5):807-19. Egen JG, Rothfuchs AG, Feng CG, Horwitz MA, Sher A, Germain RN. PMID: 21596592; PMCID: PMC3164316.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 115     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Discovery and characterization of a unique mycobacterial heme acquisition system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 22; 108(12):5051-6. Tullius MV, Harmston CA, Owens CP, Chim N, Morse RP, McMath LM, Iniguez A, Kimmey JM, Sawaya MR, Whitelegge JP, Horwitz MA, Goulding CW. PMID: 21383189; PMCID: PMC3064333.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 108     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    44. Replicating Vaccines: A New Generation (Dormitzer, P.R., C.W. Mandl, and R. Rappuoli, eds). New generation BCG vaccines. 2011; 119-169. Tullius, M.V., and M.A. Horwitz. . View Publication.
    45. Novel nonmajor histocompatibility complex-linked loci from mouse chromosome 17 confer susceptibility to viral-mediated chronic autoimmune myocarditis. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2010 Oct; 3(5):399-408. Poffenberger MC, Shanina I, Aw C, El Wharry N, Straka N, Fang D, Baskin-Hill AE, Spiezio SH, Nadeau JH, Horwitz MS. PMID: 20729557.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    46. A Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) mutant with a deletion in capB, encoding a putative capsular biosynthesis protein, is significantly more attenuated than LVS yet induces potent protective immunity in mice against F. tularensis challenge. Infect Immun. 2010 Oct; 78(10):4341-55. Jia Q, Lee BY, Bowen R, Dillon BJ, Som SM, Horwitz MA. PMID: 20643859; PMCID: PMC2950357.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. The Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin phagosome proteome. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010 Jan; 9(1):32-53. Lee BY, Jethwaney D, Schilling B, Clemens DL, Gibson BW, Horwitz MA. PMID: 19815536; PMCID: PMC2808266.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    48. Novel recombinant BCG expressing perfringolysin O and the over-expression of key immunodominant antigens; pre-clinical characterization, safety and protection against challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Vaccine. 2009 Jul 16; 27(33):4412-23. Sun R, Skeiky YA, Izzo A, Dheenadhayalan V, Imam Z, Penn E, Stagliano K, Haddock S, Mueller S, Fulkerson J, Scanga C, Grover A, Derrick SC, Morris S, Hone DM, Horwitz MA, Kaufmann SH, Sadoff JC. PMID: 19500523.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 65     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Francisella tularensis phagosomal escape does not require acidification of the phagosome. Infect Immun. 2009 May; 77(5):1757-73. Clemens DL, Lee BY, Horwitz MA. PMID: 19237528; PMCID: PMC2681761.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 39     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    50. Recombinant attenuated Listeria monocytogenes vaccine expressing Francisella tularensis IglC induces protection in mice against aerosolized Type A F. tularensis. Vaccine. 2009 Feb 18; 27(8):1216-29. Jia Q, Lee BY, Clemens DL, Bowen RA, Horwitz MA. PMID: 19126421; PMCID: PMC2654553.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    51. New Generation Vaccines – 4th Edition. M. Levine, ed. Novel vaccines against tuberculosis. 2009; 516-531. Horwitz, M.A., P. Andersen, and S.H.E. Kaufmann.
    52. A new recombinant bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine safely induces significantly enhanced tuberculosis-specific immunity in human volunteers. J Infect Dis. 2008 Nov 15; 198(10):1491-501. Hoft DF, Blazevic A, Abate G, Hanekom WA, Kaplan G, Soler JH, Weichold F, Geiter L, Sadoff JC, Horwitz MA. PMID: 18808333; PMCID: PMC2670060.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 70     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    53. Commonly administered BCG strains including an evolutionarily early strain and evolutionarily late strains of disparate genealogy induce comparable protective immunity against tuberculosis. Vaccine. 2009 Jan 14; 27(3):441-5. Horwitz MA, Harth G, Dillon BJ, Maslesa-Galic S. PMID: 19007841; PMCID: PMC2657049.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. A Replication-Limited Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine against tuberculosis designed for human immunodeficiency virus-positive persons is safer and more efficacious than BCG. Infect Immun. 2008 Nov; 76(11):5200-14. Tullius MV, Harth G, Maslesa-Galic S, Dillon BJ, Horwitz MA. PMID: 18725418; PMCID: PMC2573348.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    55. The metabolic activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, assessed by use of a novel inducible GFP expression system, correlates with its capacity to inhibit phagosomal maturation and acidification in human macrophages. Mol Microbiol. 2008 May; 68(4):1047-60. Lee BY, Clemens DL, Horwitz MA. PMID: 18363792; PMCID: PMC3591484.
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    56. Hairpin extensions enhance the efficacy of mycolyl transferase-specific antisense oligonucleotides targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Apr 24; 104(17):7199-204. Harth G, Zamecnik PC, Tabatadze D, Pierson K, Horwitz MA. PMID: 17438292; PMCID: PMC1855390.
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    57. Uptake and intracellular fate of Francisella tularensis in human macrophages. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Jun; 1105:160-86. Clemens DL, Horwitz MA. PMID: 17435118.
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    58. Desferri-Exochelin, a lipid-soluble, hexadentate iron chelator, effectively removes tissue iron. Transl Res. 2006 Aug; 148(2):63-71. Hodges YK, Weinberger HD, Stephens J, Horwitz MA, Horwitz LD. PMID: 16890146.
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    59. Identification, recombinant expression, immunolocalization in macrophages, and T-cell responsiveness of the major extracellular proteins of Francisella tularensis. Infect Immun. 2006 Jul; 74(7):4002-13. Lee BY, Horwitz MA, Clemens DL. PMID: 16790773; PMCID: PMC1489726.
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    60. All four Mycobacterium tuberculosis glnA genes encode glutamine synthetase activities but only GlnA1 is abundantly expressed and essential for bacterial homeostasis. Mol Microbiol. 2005 Nov; 58(4):1157-72. Harth G, Maslesa-Galic S, Tullius MV, Horwitz MA. PMID: 16262797.
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    61. A novel live recombinant mycobacterial vaccine against bovine tuberculosis more potent than BCG. Vaccine. 2006 Mar 06; 24(10):1593-600. Horwitz MA, Harth G, Dillon BJ, Maslesa-Galic S. PMID: 16257099.
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    62. Francisella tularensis enters macrophages via a novel process involving pseudopod loops. Infect Immun. 2005 Sep; 73(9):5892-902. Clemens DL, Lee BY, Horwitz MA. PMID: 16113308; PMCID: PMC1231130.
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    63. Extraordinarily few organisms of a live recombinant BCG vaccine against tuberculosis induce maximal cell-mediated and protective immunity. Vaccine. 2006 Jan 23; 24(4):443-51. Horwitz MA, Harth G, Dillon BJ, Maslesa-Galic S. PMID: 16125825.
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    64. Enhancing the protective efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against tuberculosis by boosting with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis major secretory protein. Infect Immun. 2005 Aug; 73(8):4676-83. Horwitz MA, Harth G, Dillon BJ, Maslesa-Galic S. PMID: 16040980; PMCID: PMC1201189.
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    65. Recombinant BCG expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis major extracellular proteins. Microbes Infect. 2005 May; 7(5-6):947-54. Horwitz MA. PMID: 15919223.
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    66. A two-plasmid system for stable, selective-pressure-independent expression of multiple extracellular proteins in mycobacteria. Microbiology (Reading). 2004 Jul; 150(Pt 7):2143-2151. Harth G, Masleša-Galic S, Horwitz MA. PMID: 15256557.
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    67. Virulent and avirulent strains of Francisella tularensis prevent acidification and maturation of their phagosomes and escape into the cytoplasm in human macrophages. Infect Immun. 2004 Jun; 72(6):3204-17. Clemens DL, Lee BY, Horwitz MA. PMID: 15155622; PMCID: PMC415696.
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    68. Glutamine synthetase GlnA1 is essential for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human THP-1 macrophages and guinea pigs. Infect Immun. 2003 Jul; 71(7):3927-36. Tullius MV, Harth G, Horwitz MA. PMID: 12819079; PMCID: PMC162033.
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    69. A new vaccine against tuberculosis affords greater survival after challenge than the current vaccine in the guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2003 Apr; 71(4):1672-9. Horwitz MA, Harth G. PMID: 12654780; PMCID: PMC152073.
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    70. Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase as a novel antibiotic strategy against tuberculosis: demonstration of efficacy in vivo. Infect Immun. 2003 Jan; 71(1):456-64. Harth G, Horwitz MA. PMID: 12496196; PMCID: PMC143262.
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    71. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis phagosome in human macrophages is isolated from the host cell cytoplasm. Infect Immun. 2002 Oct; 70(10):5800-7. Clemens DL, Lee BY, Horwitz MA. PMID: 12228310; PMCID: PMC128330.
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    72. Bucillamine, a thiol antioxidant, prevents transplantation-associated reperfusion injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 25; 99(13):8915-20. Amersi F, Nelson SK, Shen XD, Kato H, Melinek J, Kupiec-Weglinski JW, Horwitz LD, Busuttil RW, Horwitz MA. PMID: 12084933; PMCID: PMC124398.
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    73. Thiol antioxidants inhibit the adjuvant effects of aerosolized diesel exhaust particles in a murine model for ovalbumin sensitization. J Immunol. 2002 Mar 01; 168(5):2560-7. Whitekus MJ, Li N, Zhang M, Wang M, Horwitz MA, Nelson SK, Horwitz LD, Brechun N, Diaz-Sanchez D, Nel AE. PMID: 11859152.
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