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Pothoulakis, Charalabos

Title(s)Professor, Medicine
SchoolDigestive Diseases
Phone3108259104
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Professor, Pathology And Laboratory Medicine


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Decoding Antibiotic-induced Susceptibility to Clostridium difficile Infection
    NIH/NIAID U01AI124290Aug 20, 2016 - Jul 31, 2021
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Characterization and Targeting of MiR-24 Network in Colitis
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK110003Aug 1, 2016 - Jul 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in Intestinal Inflammation
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK101671Aug 1, 2015 - Jul 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Chronic stress mediates fat-related changes in insulin signaling and gut motility
    NIH/NIDDK RC1DK086150Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2011
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Toll-like receptors and intestinal inflammation
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK072417Jul 1, 2006 - Jun 30, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of Neurotensin in Intestinal Inflammation
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK060729Dec 1, 2001 - May 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Substance P in Intestinal Inflammation
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK047343Sep 15, 1994 - Nov 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Barrier Function of the GI Tract in Health and Disease
    NIH/NIDDK P01DK033506Apr 1, 1984 - Sep 29, 2005
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Wang J, Ortiz C, Fontenot L, Mukhopadhyay R, Xie Y, Chen X, Feng H, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW. The therapeutic mechanism macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1a/CCL3) neutralizing antibody in Clostridium difficile infection in mice. J Infect Dis. 2019 Dec 03. PMID: 31793629.
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    2. Rankin CR, Shao L, Elliott J, Rowe L, Patel A, Videlock E, Benhammou JN, Sauk JS, Ather N, Corson M, Alipour O, Gulati A, Pothoulakis C, Padua DM. The IBD-associated long noncoding RNA IFNG-AS1 regulates the balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production after T-cell stimulation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2020 Jan 01; 318(1):G34-G40. PMID: 31545920.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Bakirtzi K, Man Law IK, Fang K, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. MiR-21 in Substance P-induced exosomes promotes cell proliferation and migration in human colonic epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019 Dec 01; 317(6):G802-G810. PMID: 31545921.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Soroosh A, Rankin CR, Polytarchou C, Lokhandwala ZA, Patel A, Chang L, Pothoulakis C, Iliopoulos D, Padua DM. miR-24 Is Elevated in Ulcerative Colitis Patients and Regulates Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function. Am J Pathol. 2019 Sep; 189(9):1763-1774. PMID: 31220450.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Rankin CR, Lokhandwala ZA, Huang R, Pekow J, Pothoulakis C, Padua D. Linear and circular CDKN2B-AS1 expression is associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and participates in intestinal barrier formation. Life Sci. 2019 Aug 15; 231:116571. PMID: 31207308.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Rankin CR, Treger J, Faure-Kumar E, Benhammou J, Anisman-Posner D, Bollinger AE, Pothoulakis C, Padua DM. Overexpressing Long Noncoding RNAs Using Gene-activating CRISPR. J Vis Exp. 2019 03 01; (145). PMID: 30882798.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Huang J, Kelly CP, Bakirtzi K, Villafuerte Gálvez JA, Lyras D, Mileto SJ, Larcombe S, Xu H, Yang X, Shields KS, Zhu W, Zhang Y, Goldsmith JD, Patel IJ, Hansen J, Huang M, Yla-Herttuala S, Moss AC, Paredes-Sabja D, Pothoulakis C, Shah YM, Wang J, Chen X. Clostridium difficile toxins induce VEGF-A and vascular permeability to promote disease pathogenesis. Nat Microbiol. 2019 02; 4(2):269-279. PMID: 30510170.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Rankin CR, Theodorou E, Man Law IK, Rowe L, Kokkotou E, Pekow J, Wang J, Martín MG, Pothoulakis C, Padua D. Identification of novel mRNAs and lncRNAs associated with mouse experimental colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 11 01; 315(5):G722-G733. PMID: 29953254.
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    9. Videlock EJ, Mahurkar-Joshi S, Hoffman JM, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA, Chang L. Sigmoid colon mucosal gene expression supports alterations of neuronal signaling in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 07 01; 315(1):G140-G157. PMID: 29565640.
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    10. Hoffman JM, Sideri A, Ruiz JJ, Stavrakis D, Shih DQ, Turner JR, Pothoulakis C, Karagiannides I. Mesenteric Adipose-derived Stromal Cells From Crohn's Disease Patients Induce Protective Effects in Colonic Epithelial Cells and Mice With Colitis. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 6(1):1-16. PMID: 29928668.
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    11. Soroosh A, Koutsioumpa M, Pothoulakis C, Iliopoulos D. Functional role and therapeutic targeting of microRNAs in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 02 01; 314(2):G256-G262. PMID: 29146677.
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    12. Pothoulakis C, Torre-Rojas M, Duran-Padilla MA, Gevorkian J, Zoras O, Chrysos E, Chalkiadakis G, Baritaki S. CRHR2/Ucn2 signaling is a novel regulator of miR-7/YY1/Fas circuitry contributing to reversal of colorectal cancer cell resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Int J Cancer. 2018 01 15; 142(2):334-346. PMID: 28929494.
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    13. Law IKM, Padua DM, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. Role of G protein-coupled receptors-microRNA interactions in gastrointestinal pathophysiology. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017 Nov 01; 313(5):G361-G372. PMID: 28774868.
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    14. Koon HW, Su B, Xu C, Mussatto CC, Tran DH, Lee EC, Ortiz C, Wang J, Lee JE, Ho S, Chen X, Kelly CP, Pothoulakis C. Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 prevents outbreak-associated Clostridium difficile-associated cecal inflammation in hamsters. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 10 01; 311(4):G610-G623. PMID: 27514478.
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    15. Padua D, Mahurkar-Joshi S, Law IK, Polytarchou C, Vu JP, Pisegna JR, Shih D, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. A long noncoding RNA signature for ulcerative colitis identifies IFNG-AS1 as an enhancer of inflammation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 09 01; 311(3):G446-57. PMID: 27492330.
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    16. Bakirtzi K, Law IK, Xue X, Iliopoulos D, Shah YM, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin Promotes the Development of Colitis and Intestinal Angiogenesis via Hif-1a-miR-210 Signaling. J Immunol. 2016 05 15; 196(10):4311-21. PMID: 27076683.
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    17. Yuan PQ, Wu SV, Pothoulakis C, Taché Y. Urocortins and CRF receptor type 2 variants in the male rat colon: gene expression and regulation by endotoxin and anti-inflammatory effect. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Mar 15; 310(6):G387-98. PMID: 26744472.
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    18. Padua D, Pothoulakis C. Novel approaches to treating Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016; 10(2):193-204. PMID: 26643655.
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    19. Hoffman JM, Baritaki S, Ruiz JJ, Sideri A, Pothoulakis C. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 Signaling Promotes Mucosal Repair Responses after Colitis. Am J Pathol. 2016 Jan; 186(1):134-44. PMID: 26597886.
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    20. Rodriguez JA, Huerta-Yepez S, Law IK, Baay-Guzman GJ, Tirado-Rodriguez B, Hoffman JM, Iliopoulos D, Hommes DW, Verspaget HW, Chang L, Pothoulakis C, Baritaki S. Diminished expression of CRHR2 in human colon cancer promotes tumor growth and EMT via persistent IL-6/Stat3 signaling. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Nov 01; 1(6):610-630. PMID: 26495412.
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    21. Fang K, Sideri A, Law IK, Bakirtzi K, Polytarchou C, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. Identification of a novel substance P (SP)-neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) microRNA-221-5p inflammatory network in human colonic epithelial cells. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Sep 01; 1(5):503-515. PMID: 26645045.
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    22. Bradesi S, Karagiannides I, Bakirtzi K, Joshi SM, Koukos G, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Identification of Spinal Cord MicroRNA and Gene Signatures in a Model of Chronic Stress-Induced Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rat. PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0130938. PMID: 26222740.
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    23. Sideri A, Bakirtzi K, Shih DQ, Koon HW, Fleshner P, Arsenescu R, Arsenescu V, Turner JR, Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C. Substance P mediates pro-inflammatory cytokine release form mesenteric adipocytes in Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Jul 01; 1(4):420-432. PMID: 26543894.
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    24. Polytarchou C, Hommes DW, Palumbo T, Hatziapostolou M, Koutsioumpa M, Koukos G, van der Meulen-de Jong AE, Oikonomopoulos A, van Deen WK, Vorvis C, Serebrennikova OB, Birli E, Choi J, Chang L, Anton PA, Tsichlis PN, Pothoulakis C, Verspaget HW, Iliopoulos D. MicroRNA214 Is Associated With Progression of Ulcerative Colitis, and Inhibition Reduces Development of Colitis and Colitis-Associated Cancer in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2015 Oct; 149(4):981-92.e11. PMID: 26055138.
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    25. Koukos G, Polytarchou C, Kaplan JL, Oikonomopoulos A, Ziring D, Hommes DW, Wahed R, Kokkotou E, Pothoulakis C, Winter HS, Iliopoulos D. A microRNA signature in pediatric ulcerative colitis: deregulation of the miR-4284/CXCL5 pathway in the intestinal epithelium. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015 May; 21(5):996-1005. PMID: 25738378.
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    26. Sideri A, Stavrakis D, Bowe C, Shih DQ, Fleshner P, Arsenescu V, Arsenescu R, Turner JR, Pothoulakis C, Karagiannides I. Effects of obesity on severity of colitis and cytokine expression in mouse mesenteric fat. Potential role of adiponectin receptor 1. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Apr 01; 308(7):G591-604. PMID: 25591865.
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    27. Yoo JH, Ho S, Tran DH, Cheng M, Bakirtzi K, Kukota Y, Ichikawa R, Su B, Tran DH, Hing TC, Chang I, Shih DQ, Issacson RE, Gallo RL, Fiocchi C, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW. Anti-fibrogenic effects of the anti-microbial peptide cathelicidin in murine colitis-associated fibrosis. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Jan; 1(1):55-74.e1. PMID: 25729764.
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    28. Bakirtzi K, West G, Fiocchi C, Law IK, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. The neurotensin-HIF-1a-VEGFa axis orchestrates hypoxia, colonic inflammation, and intestinal angiogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2014 Dec; 184(12):3405-14. PMID: 25307345.
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    29. Law IK, Bakirtzi K, Polytarchou C, Oikonomopoulos A, Hommes D, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin--regulated miR-133a is involved in proinflammatory signalling in human colonic epithelial cells and in experimental colitis. Gut. 2015 Jul; 64(7):1095-104. PMID: 25112884.
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    30. Karagiannides I, Golovatscka V, Bakirtzi K, Sideri A, Salas M, Stavrakis D, Polytarchou C, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C, Bradesi S. Chronic unpredictable stress regulates visceral adipocyte-mediated glucose metabolism and inflammatory circuits in male rats. Physiol Rep. 2014; 2(5):e00284. PMID: 24819750.
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    31. Vu JP, Million M, Larauche M, Luong L, Norris J, Waschek JA, Pothoulakis C, Pisegna JR, Germano PM. Inhibition of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) induces resistance to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. J Mol Neurosci. 2014 Jan; 52(1):37-47. PMID: 24395090.
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    32. Bakirtzi K, Hoffman JM, Pothoulakis C. Silence Please!: siRNA approaches to tighten the intestinal barrier in vivo. Am J Pathol. 2013 Dec; 183(6):1700-1702. PMID: 24183845.
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    33. Koukos G, Polytarchou C, Kaplan JL, Morley-Fletcher A, Gras-Miralles B, Kokkotou E, Baril-Dore M, Pothoulakis C, Winter HS, Iliopoulos D. MicroRNA-124 regulates STAT3 expression and is down-regulated in colon tissues of pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 2013 Oct; 145(4):842-52.e2. PMID: 23856509.
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    34. Tchkonia T, Thomou T, Zhu Y, Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C, Jensen MD, Kirkland JL. Mechanisms and metabolic implications of regional differences among fat depots. Cell Metab. 2013 May 07; 17(5):644-656. PMID: 23583168.
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    35. Tuominen I, Al-Rabadi L, Stavrakis D, Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C, Bugni JM. Diet-induced obesity promotes colon tumor development in azoxymethane-treated mice. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e60939. PMID: 23560112.
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    36. Zheng L, Zhang X, Chen J, Ichikawa R, Wallace K, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW, Targan SR, Shih DQ. SUSTAINED TL1A (TNFSF15) EXPRESSION ON BOTH LYMPHOID AND MYELOID CELLS LEADS TO MILD SPONTANEOUS INTESTINAL INFLAMMATION AND FIBROSIS. Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2013 Mar; 3(1):11-20. PMID: 23638306.
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    37. Ho S, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW. Antimicrobial peptides and colitis. Curr Pharm Des. 2013; 19(1):40-7. PMID: 22950497.
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    38. Hing TC, Ho S, Shih DQ, Ichikawa R, Cheng M, Chen J, Chen X, Law I, Najarian R, Kelly CP, Gallo RL, Targan SR, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW. The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin modulates Clostridium difficile-associated colitis and toxin A-mediated enteritis in mice. Gut. 2013 Sep; 62(9):1295-305. PMID: 22760006.
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    39. Law IK, Murphy JE, Bakirtzi K, Bunnett NW, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin-induced proinflammatory signaling in human colonocytes is regulated by ß-arrestins and endothelin-converting enzyme-1-dependent endocytosis and resensitization of neurotensin receptor 1. J Biol Chem. 2012 Apr 27; 287(18):15066-75. PMID: 22416137.
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    40. Fink C, Karagiannides I, Bakirtzi K, Pothoulakis C. Adipose tissue and inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012 Aug; 18(8):1550-7. PMID: 22407798.
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    41. Kelesidis T, Pothoulakis C. Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2012 Mar; 5(2):111-25. PMID: 22423260.
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    42. Chang L, Adeyemo M, Karagiannides I, Karagiannidis I, Videlock EJ, Bowe C, Shih W, Presson AP, Yuan PQ, Cortina G, Gong H, Singh S, Licudine A, Mayer M, Tache Y, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Serum and colonic mucosal immune markers in irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Feb; 107(2):262-72. PMID: 22158028.
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    43. Barrett R, Zhang X, Koon HW, Vu M, Chang JY, Yeager N, Nguyen MA, Michelsen KS, Berel D, Pothoulakis C, Targan SR, Shih DQ. Constitutive TL1A expression under colitogenic conditions modulates the severity and location of gut mucosal inflammation and induces fibrostenosis. Am J Pathol. 2012 Feb; 180(2):636-49. PMID: 22138299.
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    44. Karagiannides I, Bakirtzi K, Kokkotou E, Stavrakis D, Margolis KG, Thomou T, Giorgadze N, Kirkland JL, Pothoulakis C. Role of substance P in the regulation of glucose metabolism via insulin signaling-associated pathways. Endocrinology. 2011 Dec; 152(12):4571-80. PMID: 22009727.
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    45. Smith AL, Leung J, Kun S, Zhang R, Karagiannides I, Raz S, Lee U, Glovatscka V, Pothoulakis C, Bradesi S, Mayer EA, Rodríguez LV. The effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on bladder function in a rodent model. Urology. 2011 Oct; 78(4):967.e1-7. PMID: 21868072.
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    46. Bakirtzi K, Hatziapostolou M, Karagiannides I, Polytarchou C, Jaeger S, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin signaling activates microRNAs-21 and -155 and Akt, promotes tumor growth in mice, and is increased in human colon tumors. Gastroenterology. 2011 Nov; 141(5):1749-61.e1. PMID: 21806946.
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    47. Koon HW, Shih DQ, Chen J, Bakirtzi K, Hing TC, Law I, Ho S, Ichikawa R, Zhao D, Xu H, Gallo R, Dempsey P, Cheng G, Targan SR, Pothoulakis C. Cathelicidin signaling via the Toll-like receptor protects against colitis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2011 Nov; 141(5):1852-63.e1-3. PMID: 21762664.
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    48. Bradesi S, Golovatscka V, Ennes HS, McRoberts JA, Karagiannides I, Karagiannidis I, Bakirtzi K, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Role of astrocytes and altered regulation of spinal glutamatergic neurotransmission in stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011 Sep; 301(3):G580-9. PMID: 21719739.
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    49. Karagiannides I, Stavrakis D, Bakirtzi K, Kokkotou E, Pirtskhalava T, Nayeb-Hashemi H, Bowe C, Bugni JM, Nuño M, Lu B, Gerard NP, Leeman SE, Kirkland JL, Pothoulakis C. Substance P (SP)-neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) alters adipose tissue responses to high-fat diet and insulin action. Endocrinology. 2011 Jun; 152(6):2197-205. PMID: 21467195.
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    50. Gourcerol G, Wu SV, Yuan PQ, Pham H, Miampamba M, Larauche M, Sanders P, Amano T, Mulak A, Im E, Pothoulakis C, Rivier J, Taché Y, Million M. Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 mediates the colonic motor coping response to acute stress in rodents. Gastroenterology. 2011 May; 140(5):1586-96.e6. PMID: 21277852.
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    51. Shih DQ, Barrett R, Zhang X, Yeager N, Koon HW, Phaosawasdi P, Song Y, Ko B, Wong MH, Michelsen KS, Martins G, Pothoulakis C, Targan SR. Constitutive TL1A (TNFSF15) expression on lymphoid or myeloid cells leads to mild intestinal inflammation and fibrosis. PLoS One. 2011 Jan 11; 6(1):e16090. PMID: 21264313.
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    52. Zhao D, Bakirtzi K, Zhan Y, Zeng H, Koon HW, Pothoulakis C. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor transactivation modulates the inflammatory and proliferative responses of neurotensin in human colonic epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2011 Feb 25; 286(8):6092-9. PMID: 21212273.
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    53. Karagiannides I, Bakirtzi K, Pothoulakis C. Neuropeptide - adipose tissue communication and intestinal pathophysiology. Curr Pharm Des. 2011; 17(16):1576-82. PMID: 21548874.
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    54. Koon HW, Shih D, Karagiannides I, Zhao D, Fazelbhoy Z, Hing T, Xu H, Lu B, Gerard N, Pothoulakis C. Substance P modulates colitis-associated fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2010 Nov; 177(5):2300-9. PMID: 20889569.
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    55. Choi YJ, Im E, Chung HK, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH. TRIF mediates Toll-like receptor 5-induced signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 26; 285(48):37570-8. PMID: 20855887.
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    56. Choi YJ, Im E, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH. TRIF modulates TLR5-dependent responses by inducing proteolytic degradation of TLR5. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jul 09; 285(28):21382-90. PMID: 20452988.
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    57. Im E, Choi YJ, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH. Bacillus polyfermenticus ameliorates colonic inflammation by promoting cytoprotective effects in colitic mice. J Nutr. 2009 Oct; 139(10):1848-54. PMID: 19675103.
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    58. Chen X, Fruehauf J, Goldsmith JD, Xu H, Katchar KK, Koon HW, Zhao D, Kokkotou EG, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP. Saccharomyces boulardii inhibits EGF receptor signaling and intestinal tumor growth in Apc(min) mice. Gastroenterology. 2009 Sep; 137(3):914-23. PMID: 19482027.
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    59. Koon HW, Kim YS, Xu H, Kumar A, Zhao D, Karagiannides I, Dobner PR, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin induces IL-6 secretion in mouse preadipocytes and adipose tissues during 2,4,6,-trinitrobenzensulphonic acid-induced colitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 26; 106(21):8766-71. PMID: 19443690.
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    60. Rhee SH, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Principles and clinical implications of the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 May; 6(5):306-14. PMID: 19404271.
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    61. Gross K, Karagiannides I, Thomou T, Koon HW, Bowe C, Kim H, Giorgadze N, Tchkonia T, Pirtskhalava T, Kirkland JL, Pothoulakis C. Substance P promotes expansion of human mesenteric preadipocytes through proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 May; 296(5):G1012-9. PMID: 19282377.
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    62. Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C. Substance P, obesity, and gut inflammation. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2009 Feb; 16(1):47-52. PMID: 19104238.
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    63. Bradesi S, Svensson CI, Steinauer J, Pothoulakis C, Yaksh TL, Mayer EA. Role of spinal microglia in visceral hyperalgesia and NK1R up-regulation in a rat model of chronic stress. Gastroenterology. 2009 Apr; 136(4):1339-48, e1-2. PMID: 19249394.
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    64. Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C. Neuropeptides, mesenteric fat, and intestinal inflammation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Nov; 1144:127-35. PMID: 19076372.
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    65. Kokkotou E, Moss AC, Torres D, Karagiannides I, Cheifetz A, Liu S, O'Brien M, Maratos-Flier E, Pothoulakis C. Melanin-concentrating hormone as a mediator of intestinal inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 29; 105(30):10613-8. PMID: 18650383.
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    66. Pothoulakis C. Review article: anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of Saccharomyces boulardii. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Oct 15; 30(8):826-33. PMID: 19706150.
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    67. Karagiannides I, Torres D, Tseng YH, Bowe C, Carvalho E, Espinoza D, Pothoulakis C, Kokkotou E. Substance P as a novel anti-obesity target. Gastroenterology. 2008 Mar; 134(3):747-55. PMID: 18325388.
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    68. Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C. Obesity, innate immunity and gut inflammation. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2007 Nov; 23(6):661-6. PMID: 17906444.
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    69. Cottrell GS, Amadesi S, Pikios S, Camerer E, Willardsen JA, Murphy BR, Caughey GH, Wolters PJ, Coughlin SR, Peterson A, Knecht W, Pothoulakis C, Bunnett NW, Grady EF. Protease-activated receptor 2, dipeptidyl peptidase I, and proteases mediate Clostridium difficile toxin A enteritis. Gastroenterology. 2007 Jun; 132(7):2422-37. PMID: 17570216.
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    70. Tchkonia T, Lenburg M, Thomou T, Giorgadze N, Frampton G, Pirtskhalava T, Cartwright A, Cartwright M, Flanagan J, Karagiannides I, Gerry N, Forse RA, Tchoukalova Y, Jensen MD, Pothoulakis C, Kirkland JL. Identification of depot-specific human fat cell progenitors through distinct expression profiles and developmental gene patterns. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan; 292(1):E298-307. PMID: 16985259.
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    71. Chen X, Kokkotou EG, Mustafa N, Bhaskar KR, Sougioultzis S, O'Brien M, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP. Saccharomyces boulardii inhibits ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation both in vitro and in vivo and protects against Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 25; 281(34):24449-54. PMID: 16816386.
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    72. Bradesi S, Kokkotou E, Simeonidis S, Patierno S, Ennes HS, Mittal Y, McRoberts JA, Ohning G, McLean P, Marvizon JC, Sternini C, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. The role of neurokinin 1 receptors in the maintenance of visceral hyperalgesia induced by repeated stress in rats. Gastroenterology. 2006 May; 130(6):1729-42. PMID: 16697737.
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    73. Karagiannides I, Kokkotou E, Tansky M, Tchkonia T, Giorgadze N, O'Brien M, Leeman SE, Kirkland JL, Pothoulakis C. Induction of colitis causes inflammatory responses in fat depots: evidence for substance P pathways in human mesenteric preadipocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 28; 103(13):5207-12. PMID: 16549770.
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    74. Sougioultzis S, Simeonidis S, Bhaskar KR, Chen X, Anton PM, Keates S, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP. Saccharomyces boulardii produces a soluble anti-inflammatory factor that inhibits NF-kappaB-mediated IL-8 gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Apr 28; 343(1):69-76. PMID: 16529714.
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