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Pothoulakis Charalabos

Title(s)Professor, Digestive Diseases/Gastroenterology
Phone310-825-9104
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Eli and Edythe Broad Chair, Medicine


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Decoding Antibiotic-induced Susceptibility to Clostridium difficile Infection
    NIH/NIAID U01AI124290Aug 20, 2016 - Jul 31, 2021
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Characterization and Targeting of MiR-24 Network in Colitis
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK110003Aug 1, 2016 - Jul 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in Intestinal Inflammation
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK101671Aug 1, 2015 - Jul 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Chronic stress mediates fat-related changes in insulin signaling and gut motility
    NIH/NIDDK RC1DK086150Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2011
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Toll-like receptors and intestinal inflammation
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK072417Jul 1, 2006 - Apr 30, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of Neurotensin in Intestinal Inflammation
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK060729Dec 1, 2001 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Substance P in Intestinal Inflammation
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK047343Sep 15, 1994 - Jul 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Barrier Function of the GI Tract in Health and Disease
    NIH/NIDDK P01DK033506Apr 1, 1984 - Aug 31, 2016
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Wang J, Ortiz C, Fontenot L, Mukhopadhyay R, Xie Y, Chen X, Feng H, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW. The therapeutic mechanism macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1a/CCL3) neutralizing antibody in Clostridium difficile infection in mice. J Infect Dis. 2019 Dec 03. PMID: 31793629.
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    2. Baritaki S, de Bree E, Chatzaki E, Pothoulakis C. Chronic Stress, Inflammation, and Colon Cancer: A CRH System-Driven Molecular Crosstalk. J Clin Med. 2019 Oct 12; 8(10). PMID: 31614860.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Rankin CR, Shao L, Elliott J, Rowe L, Patel A, Videlock EJ, Benhammou JN, Sauk JS, Ather N, Corson M, Alipour O, Gulati A, Pothoulakis C, Padua DM. The IBD associated long non-coding RNA IFNG-AS1 regulates the balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production after T-cell stimulation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019 Sep 23. PMID: 31545920.
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    4. Bakirtzi K, Man Law IK, Fang K, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. MiR-21 in Substance P-induced exosomes promotes cell proliferation and migration in human colonic epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019 Dec 01; 317(6):G802-G810. PMID: 31545921.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Soroosh A, Rankin CR, Polytarchou C, Lokhandwala ZA, Patel A, Chang L, Pothoulakis C, Iliopoulos D, Padua DM. miR-24 Is Elevated in Ulcerative Colitis Patients and Regulates Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function. Am J Pathol. 2019 Sep; 189(9):1763-1774. PMID: 31220450.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Rankin CR, Lokhandwala ZA, Huang R, Pekow J, Pothoulakis C, Padua D. Linear and circular CDKN2B-AS1 expression is associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and participates in intestinal barrier formation. Life Sci. 2019 Aug 15; 231:116571. PMID: 31207308.
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    7. Rankin CR, Treger J, Faure-Kumar E, Benhammou J, Anisman-Posner D, Bollinger AE, Pothoulakis C, Padua DM. Overexpressing Long Noncoding RNAs Using Gene-activating CRISPR. J Vis Exp. 2019 03 01; (145). PMID: 30882798.
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    8. Huang J, Kelly CP, Bakirtzi K, Villafuerte Gálvez JA, Lyras D, Mileto SJ, Larcombe S, Xu H, Yang X, Shields KS, Zhu W, Zhang Y, Goldsmith JD, Patel IJ, Hansen J, Huang M, Yla-Herttuala S, Moss AC, Paredes-Sabja D, Pothoulakis C, Shah YM, Wang J, Chen X. Clostridium difficile toxins induce VEGF-A and vascular permeability to promote disease pathogenesis. Nat Microbiol. 2019 02; 4(2):269-279. PMID: 30510170.
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    9. Mitchell J, Kim SJ, Koukos G, Seelmann A, Veit B, Shepard B, Blumer-Schuette S, Winter HS, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C, Im E, Rhee SH. Colonic Inhibition of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Increases Colitogenic Bacteria, Causing Development of Colitis in Il10-/- Mice. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018 07 12; 24(8):1718-1732. PMID: 29788382.
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    10. Rankin CR, Theodorou E, Man Law IK, Rowe L, Kokkotou E, Pekow J, Wang J, Martín MG, Pothoulakis C, Padua D. Identification of novel mRNAs and lncRNAs associated with mouse experimental colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 11 01; 315(5):G722-G733. PMID: 29953254.
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    11. Videlock EJ, Mahurkar-Joshi S, Hoffman JM, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA, Chang L. Sigmoid colon mucosal gene expression supports alterations of neuronal signaling in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 07 01; 315(1):G140-G157. PMID: 29565640.
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    12. Hoffman JM, Sideri A, Ruiz JJ, Stavrakis D, Shih DQ, Turner JR, Pothoulakis C, Karagiannides I. Mesenteric Adipose-derived Stromal Cells From Crohn's Disease Patients Induce Protective Effects in Colonic Epithelial Cells and Mice With Colitis. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 6(1):1-16. PMID: 29928668.
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    13. Koon HW, Wang J, Mussatto CC, Ortiz C, Lee EC, Tran DH, Chen X, Kelly CP, Pothoulakis C. Fidaxomicin and OP-1118 Inhibit Clostridium difficile Toxin A- and B-Mediated Inflammatory Responses via Inhibition of NF-?B Activity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 01; 62(1). PMID: 29038278.
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    14. Fang K, Law IKM, Padua D, Sideri A, Huang V, Kevil CG, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. MicroRNA-31-3p Is Involved in Substance P (SP)-Associated Inflammation in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells and Experimental Colitis. Am J Pathol. 2018 03; 188(3):586-599. PMID: 29253460.
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    15. Soroosh A, Koutsioumpa M, Pothoulakis C, Iliopoulos D. Functional role and therapeutic targeting of microRNAs in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 02 01; 314(2):G256-G262. PMID: 29146677.
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    16. Pothoulakis C, Torre-Rojas M, Duran-Padilla MA, Gevorkian J, Zoras O, Chrysos E, Chalkiadakis G, Baritaki S. CRHR2/Ucn2 signaling is a novel regulator of miR-7/YY1/Fas circuitry contributing to reversal of colorectal cancer cell resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Int J Cancer. 2018 01 15; 142(2):334-346. PMID: 28929494.
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    17. Lee Y, Choo J, Kim SJ, Heo G, Pothoulakis C, Kim YH, Im E. Analysis of endogenous lipids during intestinal wound healing. PLoS One. 2017; 12(8):e0183028. PMID: 28800645.
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    18. Law IKM, Padua DM, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. Role of G protein-coupled receptors-microRNA interactions in gastrointestinal pathophysiology. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017 Nov 01; 313(5):G361-G372. PMID: 28774868.
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    19. Lee Y, Jo J, Chung HY, Pothoulakis C, Im E. Endocannabinoids in the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 10 01; 311(4):G655-G666. PMID: 27538961.
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    20. Koon HW, Su B, Xu C, Mussatto CC, Tran DH, Lee EC, Ortiz C, Wang J, Lee JE, Ho S, Chen X, Kelly CP, Pothoulakis C. Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 prevents outbreak-associated Clostridium difficile-associated cecal inflammation in hamsters. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 10 01; 311(4):G610-G623. PMID: 27514478.
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    21. Padua D, Mahurkar-Joshi S, Law IK, Polytarchou C, Vu JP, Pisegna JR, Shih D, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. A long noncoding RNA signature for ulcerative colitis identifies IFNG-AS1 as an enhancer of inflammation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 09 01; 311(3):G446-57. PMID: 27492330.
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    22. Mashaghi A, Marmalidou A, Tehrani M, Grace PM, Pothoulakis C, Dana R. Neuropeptide substance P and the immune response. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016 11; 73(22):4249-4264. PMID: 27314883.
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    23. Bakirtzi K, Law IK, Xue X, Iliopoulos D, Shah YM, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin Promotes the Development of Colitis and Intestinal Angiogenesis via Hif-1a-miR-210 Signaling. J Immunol. 2016 05 15; 196(10):4311-21. PMID: 27076683.
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    24. Giannogonas P, Apostolou A, Manousopoulou A, Theocharis S, Macari SA, Psarras S, Garbis SD, Pothoulakis C, Karalis KP. Identification of a novel interaction between corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) and macroautophagy. Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 18; 6:23342. PMID: 26987580.
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    25. Law IK, Jensen D, Bunnett NW, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin-induced miR-133a expression regulates neurotensin receptor 1 recycling through its downstream target aftiphilin. Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 23; 6:22195. PMID: 26902265.
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    26. Yuan PQ, Wu SV, Pothoulakis C, Taché Y. Urocortins and CRF receptor type 2 variants in the male rat colon: gene expression and regulation by endotoxin and anti-inflammatory effect. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Mar 15; 310(6):G387-98. PMID: 26744472.
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    27. Mahurkar S, Polytarchou C, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA, Chang L. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016 Mar; 28(3):410-22. PMID: 26670691.
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    28. Kim DH, Hwang JS, Lee IH, Nam ST, Hong J, Zhang P, Lu LF, Lee J, Seok H, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT, Kim H. The Insect Peptide CopA3 Increases Colonic Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Mucosal Barrier Function to Prevent Inflammatory Responses in the Gut. J Biol Chem. 2016 Feb 12; 291(7):3209-23. PMID: 26655716.
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    29. Padua D, Pothoulakis C. Novel approaches to treating Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016; 10(2):193-204. PMID: 26643655.
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    30. Hoffman JM, Baritaki S, Ruiz JJ, Sideri A, Pothoulakis C. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 Signaling Promotes Mucosal Repair Responses after Colitis. Am J Pathol. 2016 Jan; 186(1):134-44. PMID: 26597886.
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    31. Rodriguez JA, Huerta-Yepez S, Law IK, Baay-Guzman GJ, Tirado-Rodriguez B, Hoffman JM, Iliopoulos D, Hommes DW, Verspaget HW, Chang L, Pothoulakis C, Baritaki S. Diminished expression of CRHR2 in human colon cancer promotes tumor growth and EMT via persistent IL-6/Stat3 signaling. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Nov 01; 1(6):610-630. PMID: 26495412.
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    32. Rhee SH, Ma EL, Lee Y, Taché Y, Pothoulakis C, Im E. Corticotropin Releasing Hormone and Urocortin 3 Stimulate Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression through the cAMP/CREB Pathway. J Biol Chem. 2015 Oct 23; 290(43):26194-203. PMID: 26350463.
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    33. Choo J, Lee Y, Yan XJ, Noh TH, Kim SJ, Son S, Pothoulakis C, Moon HR, Jung JH, Im E. A Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR)? Agonist 2-Hydroxyethyl 5-chloro-4,5-didehydrojasmonate Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Colitis. J Biol Chem. 2015 Oct 16; 290(42):25609-19. PMID: 26342083.
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    34. Fang K, Sideri A, Law IK, Bakirtzi K, Polytarchou C, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. Identification of a novel substance P (SP)-neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) microRNA-221-5p inflammatory network in human colonic epithelial cells. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Sep 01; 1(5):503-515. PMID: 26645045.
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    35. Bradesi S, Karagiannides I, Bakirtzi K, Joshi SM, Koukos G, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Identification of Spinal Cord MicroRNA and Gene Signatures in a Model of Chronic Stress-Induced Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rat. PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0130938. PMID: 26222740.
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    36. Sideri A, Bakirtzi K, Shih DQ, Koon HW, Fleshner P, Arsenescu R, Arsenescu V, Turner JR, Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C. Substance P mediates pro-inflammatory cytokine release form mesenteric adipocytes in Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Jul 01; 1(4):420-432. PMID: 26543894.
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    37. Polytarchou C, Hommes DW, Palumbo T, Hatziapostolou M, Koutsioumpa M, Koukos G, van der Meulen-de Jong AE, Oikonomopoulos A, van Deen WK, Vorvis C, Serebrennikova OB, Birli E, Choi J, Chang L, Anton PA, Tsichlis PN, Pothoulakis C, Verspaget HW, Iliopoulos D. MicroRNA214 Is Associated With Progression of Ulcerative Colitis, and Inhibition Reduces Development of Colitis and Colitis-Associated Cancer in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2015 Oct; 149(4):981-92.e11. PMID: 26055138.
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    38. Koukos G, Polytarchou C, Kaplan JL, Oikonomopoulos A, Ziring D, Hommes DW, Wahed R, Kokkotou E, Pothoulakis C, Winter HS, Iliopoulos D. A microRNA signature in pediatric ulcerative colitis: deregulation of the miR-4284/CXCL5 pathway in the intestinal epithelium. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015 May; 21(5):996-1005. PMID: 25738378.
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    39. Vilisaar J, Kawabe K, Braitch M, Aram J, Furtun Y, Fahey AJ, Chopra M, Tanasescu R, Tighe PJ, Gran B, Pothoulakis C, Constantinescu CS. Reciprocal Regulation of Substance P and IL-12/IL-23 and the Associated Cytokines, IFN?/IL-17: A Perspective on the Relevance of This Interaction to Multiple Sclerosis. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015 Sep; 10(3):457-67. PMID: 25690155.
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    40. Sideri A, Stavrakis D, Bowe C, Shih DQ, Fleshner P, Arsenescu V, Arsenescu R, Turner JR, Pothoulakis C, Karagiannides I. Effects of obesity on severity of colitis and cytokine expression in mouse mesenteric fat. Potential role of adiponectin receptor 1. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Apr 01; 308(7):G591-604. PMID: 25591865.
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    41. Law IK, Pothoulakis C. MicroRNA-133a regulates neurotensin-associated colonic inflammation in colonic epithelial cells and experimental colitis. RNA Dis. 2015; 2(1). PMID: 26005712.
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    42. Yoo JH, Ho S, Tran DH, Cheng M, Bakirtzi K, Kukota Y, Ichikawa R, Su B, Tran DH, Hing TC, Chang I, Shih DQ, Issacson RE, Gallo RL, Fiocchi C, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW. Anti-fibrogenic effects of the anti-microbial peptide cathelicidin in murine colitis-associated fibrosis. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Jan; 1(1):55-74.e1. PMID: 25729764.
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    43. Bakirtzi K, West G, Fiocchi C, Law IK, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. The neurotensin-HIF-1a-VEGFa axis orchestrates hypoxia, colonic inflammation, and intestinal angiogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2014 Dec; 184(12):3405-14. PMID: 25307345.
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    44. Law IK, Bakirtzi K, Polytarchou C, Oikonomopoulos A, Hommes D, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin--regulated miR-133a is involved in proinflammatory signalling in human colonic epithelial cells and in experimental colitis. Gut. 2015 Jul; 64(7):1095-104. PMID: 25112884.
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    45. Jensen DD, Halls ML, Murphy JE, Canals M, Cattaruzza F, Poole DP, Lieu T, Koon HW, Pothoulakis C, Bunnett NW. Endothelin-converting enzyme 1 and ß-arrestins exert spatiotemporal control of substance P-induced inflammatory signals. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jul 18; 289(29):20283-94. PMID: 24898255.
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    46. Koon HW, Ho S, Hing TC, Cheng M, Chen X, Ichikawa Y, Kelly CP, Pothoulakis C. Fidaxomicin inhibits Clostridium difficile toxin A-mediated enteritis in the mouse ileum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Aug; 58(8):4642-50. PMID: 24890583.
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    47. Im E, Jung J, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH. Disruption of Pten speeds onset and increases severity of spontaneous colitis in Il10(-/-) mice. Gastroenterology. 2014 Sep; 147(3):667-679.e10. PMID: 24882466.
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    48. Shih DQ, Zheng L, Zhang X, Zhang H, Kanazawa Y, Ichikawa R, Wallace KL, Chen J, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW, Targan SR. Inhibition of a novel fibrogenic factor Tl1a reverses established colonic fibrosis. Mucosal Immunol. 2014 Nov; 7(6):1492-503. PMID: 24850426.
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    49. Karagiannides I, Golovatscka V, Bakirtzi K, Sideri A, Salas M, Stavrakis D, Polytarchou C, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C, Bradesi S. Chronic unpredictable stress regulates visceral adipocyte-mediated glucose metabolism and inflammatory circuits in male rats. Physiol Rep. 2014; 2(5):e00284. PMID: 24819750.
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    50. Vu JP, Million M, Larauche M, Luong L, Norris J, Waschek JA, Pothoulakis C, Pisegna JR, Germano PM. Inhibition of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) induces resistance to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. J Mol Neurosci. 2014 Jan; 52(1):37-47. PMID: 24395090.
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    51. Steinhoff MS, von Mentzer B, Geppetti P, Pothoulakis C, Bunnett NW. Tachykinins and their receptors: contributions to physiological control and the mechanisms of disease. Physiol Rev. 2014 Jan; 94(1):265-301. PMID: 24382888.
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    52. Bakirtzi K, Hoffman JM, Pothoulakis C. Silence Please!: siRNA approaches to tighten the intestinal barrier in vivo. Am J Pathol. 2013 Dec; 183(6):1700-1702. PMID: 24183845.
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    53. Grasberger H, Chang L, Shih W, Presson AP, Sayuk GS, Newberry RD, Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C, Mayer E, Merchant JL. Identification of a functional TPH1 polymorphism associated with irritable bowel syndrome bowel habit subtypes. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Nov; 108(11):1766-74. PMID: 24060757.
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    54. Koukos G, Polytarchou C, Kaplan JL, Morley-Fletcher A, Gras-Miralles B, Kokkotou E, Baril-Dore M, Pothoulakis C, Winter HS, Iliopoulos D. MicroRNA-124 regulates STAT3 expression and is down-regulated in colon tissues of pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 2013 Oct; 145(4):842-52.e2. PMID: 23856509.
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    55. Zheng L, Zhang X, Chen J, Ichikawa R, Wallace K, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW, Targan SR, Shih DQ. Erratum: Sustained TL1A (TNFSF15) expression on both lymphoid and myeloid cells leads to mild spontaneous intestinal inflammation and fibrosis (DOI: 10.1556/EuJMI.3.2013.1.2). Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2013 06; 3(2):141. PMID: 24265931.
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    56. Koon HW, Shih DQ, Hing TC, Yoo JH, Ho S, Chen X, Kelly CP, Targan SR, Pothoulakis C. Human monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins A and B inhibit inflammatory and histologic responses to the toxins in human colon and peripheral blood monocytes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Jul; 57(7):3214-23. PMID: 23629713.
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    57. Tchkonia T, Thomou T, Zhu Y, Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C, Jensen MD, Kirkland JL. Mechanisms and metabolic implications of regional differences among fat depots. Cell Metab. 2013 May 07; 17(5):644-656. PMID: 23583168.
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    58. Tuominen I, Al-Rabadi L, Stavrakis D, Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C, Bugni JM. Diet-induced obesity promotes colon tumor development in azoxymethane-treated mice. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e60939. PMID: 23560112.
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    59. Zheng L, Zhang X, Chen J, Ichikawa R, Wallace K, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW, Targan SR, Shih DQ. SUSTAINED TL1A (TNFSF15) EXPRESSION ON BOTH LYMPHOID AND MYELOID CELLS LEADS TO MILD SPONTANEOUS INTESTINAL INFLAMMATION AND FIBROSIS. Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2013 Mar; 3(1):11-20. PMID: 23638306.
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    60. Ho S, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW. Antimicrobial peptides and colitis. Curr Pharm Des. 2013; 19(1):40-7. PMID: 22950497.
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    61. Bhargava A, Clifton MS, Mhaske P, Mhsake P, Liao M, Pothoulakis C, Leeman SE, Grady EF. Local injection of dsRNA targeting calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) ameliorates Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced ileitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 08; 110(2):731-6. PMID: 23267070.
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    62. Koon HW, Ho S, Cheng M, Ichikawa R, Pothoulakis C. Differentiating functional roles of gene expression from immune and non-immune cells in mouse colitis by bone marrow transplantation. J Vis Exp. 2012 Oct 01; (68):e4208. PMID: 23052552.
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    63. Hing TC, Ho S, Shih DQ, Ichikawa R, Cheng M, Chen J, Chen X, Law I, Najarian R, Kelly CP, Gallo RL, Targan SR, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW. The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin modulates Clostridium difficile-associated colitis and toxin A-mediated enteritis in mice. Gut. 2013 Sep; 62(9):1295-305. PMID: 22760006.
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    64. Im E, Riegler FM, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH. Elevated lipopolysaccharide in the colon evokes intestinal inflammation, aggravated in immune modulator-impaired mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012 Aug 15; 303(4):G490-7. PMID: 22723263.
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    65. Law IK, Murphy JE, Bakirtzi K, Bunnett NW, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin-induced proinflammatory signaling in human colonocytes is regulated by ß-arrestins and endothelin-converting enzyme-1-dependent endocytosis and resensitization of neurotensin receptor 1. J Biol Chem. 2012 Apr 27; 287(18):15066-75. PMID: 22416137.
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    66. Fink C, Karagiannides I, Bakirtzi K, Pothoulakis C. Adipose tissue and inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012 Aug; 18(8):1550-7. PMID: 22407798.
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    67. Kelesidis T, Pothoulakis C. Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2012 Mar; 5(2):111-25. PMID: 22423260.
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    68. Oezguen N, Power TD, Urvil P, Feng H, Pothoulakis C, Stamler JS, Braun W, Savidge TC. Clostridial toxins: sensing a target in a hostile gut environment. Gut Microbes. 2012 Jan-Feb; 3(1):35-41. PMID: 22356854.
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    69. Chang L, Adeyemo M, Karagiannides I, Karagiannidis I, Videlock EJ, Bowe C, Shih W, Presson AP, Yuan PQ, Cortina G, Gong H, Singh S, Licudine A, Mayer M, Tache Y, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Serum and colonic mucosal immune markers in irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Feb; 107(2):262-72. PMID: 22158028.
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    70. Barrett R, Zhang X, Koon HW, Vu M, Chang JY, Yeager N, Nguyen MA, Michelsen KS, Berel D, Pothoulakis C, Targan SR, Shih DQ. Constitutive TL1A expression under colitogenic conditions modulates the severity and location of gut mucosal inflammation and induces fibrostenosis. Am J Pathol. 2012 Feb; 180(2):636-49. PMID: 22138299.
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    71. Piskounova E, Polytarchou C, Thornton JE, LaPierre RJ, Pothoulakis C, Hagan JP, Iliopoulos D, Gregory RI. Lin28A and Lin28B inhibit let-7 microRNA biogenesis by distinct mechanisms. Cell. 2011 Nov 23; 147(5):1066-79. PMID: 22118463.
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    72. Bugni JM, Rabadi LA, Jubbal K, Karagiannides I, Lawson G, Pothoulakis C. The neurotensin receptor-1 promotes tumor development in a sporadic but not an inflammation-associated mouse model of colon cancer. Int J Cancer. 2012 Apr 15; 130(8):1798-805. PMID: 21630261.
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    73. Karagiannides I, Bakirtzi K, Kokkotou E, Stavrakis D, Margolis KG, Thomou T, Giorgadze N, Kirkland JL, Pothoulakis C. Role of substance P in the regulation of glucose metabolism via insulin signaling-associated pathways. Endocrinology. 2011 Dec; 152(12):4571-80. PMID: 22009727.
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    74. Koon HW, Shih DQ, Hing TC, Chen J, Ho S, Zhao D, Targan SR, Pothoulakis C. Substance P induces CCN1 expression via histone deacetylase activity in human colonic epithelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2011 Nov; 179(5):2315-26. PMID: 21945803.
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    75. Smith AL, Leung J, Kun S, Zhang R, Karagiannides I, Raz S, Lee U, Glovatscka V, Pothoulakis C, Bradesi S, Mayer EA, Rodríguez LV. The effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on bladder function in a rodent model. Urology. 2011 Oct; 78(4):967.e1-7. PMID: 21868072.
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    162. Castagliuolo I, Morteau O, Keates AC, Valenick L, Wang CC, Zacks J, Lu B, Gerard NP, Pothoulakis C. Protective effects of neurokinin-1 receptor during colitis in mice: role of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 May; 136(2):271-9. PMID: 12010776.
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    163. He D, Sougioultzis S, Hagen S, Liu J, Keates S, Keates AC, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT. Clostridium difficile toxin A triggers human colonocyte IL-8 release via mitochondrial oxygen radical generation. Gastroenterology. 2002 Apr; 122(4):1048-57. PMID: 11910356.
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    164. Morteau O, Castagliuolo I, Mykoniatis A, Zacks J, Wlk M, Lu B, Pothoulakis C, Gerard NP, Gerard C. Genetic deficiency in the chemokine receptor CCR1 protects against acute Clostridium difficile toxin A enteritis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2002 Mar; 122(3):725-33. PMID: 11875005.
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    165. Agarwal B, Halmos B, Feoktistov AS, Protiva P, Ramey WG, Chen M, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT, Holt PR. Mechanism of lovastatin-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis. 2002 Mar; 23(3):521-8. PMID: 11895868.
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    166. Chen ML, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT. Protein kinase C signaling regulates ZO-1 translocation and increased paracellular flux of T84 colonocytes exposed to Clostridium difficile toxin A. J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 08; 277(6):4247-54. PMID: 11729192.
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    168. Kirkwood KS, Bunnett NW, Maa J, Castagliolo I, Liu B, Gerard N, Zacks J, Pothoulakis C, Grady EF. Deletion of neutral endopeptidase exacerbates intestinal inflammation induced by Clostridium difficile toxin A. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Aug; 281(2):G544-51. PMID: 11447035.
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    169. Qamar A, Aboudola S, Warny M, Michetti P, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, Kelly CP. Saccharomyces boulardii stimulates intestinal immunoglobulin A immune response to Clostridium difficile toxin A in mice. Infect Immun. 2001 Apr; 69(4):2762-5. PMID: 11254650.
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    170. Castagliuolo I, Karalis K, Valenick L, Pasha A, Nikulasson S, Wlk M, Pothoulakis C. Endogenous corticosteroids modulate Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis in rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Apr; 280(4):G539-45. PMID: 11254479.
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    171. Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT. Microbes and microbial toxins: paradigms for microbial-mucosal interactions II. The integrated response of the intestine to Clostridium difficile toxins. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Feb; 280(2):G178-83. PMID: 11208538.
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    172. Pothoulakis C. The role of neuroenteric hormones in intestinal infectious diseases. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2000 Nov; 16(6):536-40. PMID: 17031134.
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    173. Akbarali HI, Pothoulakis C, Castagliuolo I. Altered ion channel activity in murine colonic smooth muscle myocytes in an experimental colitis model. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Aug 28; 275(2):637-42. PMID: 10964716.
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    174. Castagliuolo I, Valenick L, Liu J, Pothoulakis C. Epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation mediates substance P-induced mitogenic responses in U-373 MG cells. J Biol Chem. 2000 Aug 25; 275(34):26545-50. PMID: 10846186.
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    175. Riegler M, Castagliuolo I, Wang C, Wlk M, Sogukoglu T, Wenzl E, Matthews JB, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin stimulates Cl(-) secretion in human colonic mucosa In vitro: role of adenosine. Gastroenterology. 2000 Aug; 119(2):348-57. PMID: 10930370.
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    176. He D, Hagen SJ, Pothoulakis C, Chen M, Medina ND, Warny M, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile toxin A causes early damage to mitochondria in cultured cells. Gastroenterology. 2000 Jul; 119(1):139-50. PMID: 10889163.
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    177. Warny M, Keates AC, Keates S, Castagliuolo I, Zacks JK, Aboudola S, Qamar A, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, Kelly CP. p38 MAP kinase activation by Clostridium difficile toxin A mediates monocyte necrosis, IL-8 production, and enteritis. J Clin Invest. 2000 Apr; 105(8):1147-56. PMID: 10772660.
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    178. Xia Y, Hu HZ, Liu S, Pothoulakis C, Wood JD. Clostridium difficile toxin A excites enteric neurones and suppresses sympathetic neurotransmission in the guinea pig. Gut. 2000 Apr; 46(4):481-6. PMID: 10716676.
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    179. Pothoulakis C. Effects of Clostridium difficile toxins on epithelial cell barrier. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000; 915:347-56. PMID: 11193598.
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    180. Riegler M, Castagliuolo I, Wlk M, Pothoulakis C. Substance P causes a chloride-dependent short-circuit current response in rabbit colonic mucosa in vitro. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1999 Dec; 34(12):1203-11. PMID: 10636067.
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    181. Riegler M, Castagliuolo I, So PT, Lotz M, Wang C, Wlk M, Sogukoglu T, Cosentini E, Bischof G, Hamilton G, Teleky B, Wenzl E, Matthews JB, Pothoulakis C. Effects of substance P on human colonic mucosa in vitro. Am J Physiol. 1999 06; 276(6):G1473-83. PMID: 10362651.
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    182. Riegler M, Lotz M, Sears C, Pothoulakis C, Castagliuolo I, Wang CC, Sedivy R, Sogukoglu T, Cosentini E, Bischof G, Feil W, Teleky B, Hamilton G, LaMont JT, Wenzl E. Bacteroides fragilis toxin 2 damages human colonic mucosa in vitro. Gut. 1999 Apr; 44(4):504-10. PMID: 10075957.
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    183. Castagliuolo I, Wang CC, Valenick L, Pasha A, Nikulasson S, Carraway RE, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin is a proinflammatory neuropeptide in colonic inflammation. J Clin Invest. 1999 Mar; 103(6):843-9. PMID: 10079105.
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    184. Qiu B, Pothoulakis C, Castagliuolo I, Nikulasson S, LaMont JT. Participation of reactive oxygen metabolites in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis in rats. Am J Physiol. 1999 02; 276(2):G485-90. PMID: 9950823.
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    185. Warny M, Fatimi A, Bostwick EF, Laine DC, Lebel F, LaMont JT, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP. Bovine immunoglobulin concentrate-clostridium difficile retains C difficile toxin neutralising activity after passage through the human stomach and small intestine. Gut. 1999 Feb; 44(2):212-7. PMID: 9895380.
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    186. Pothoulakis C. Enterotoxin A of Clostridium difficile and alpha-Gal epitopes. Subcell Biochem. 1999; 32:215-27. PMID: 10391997.
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    187. Castagliuolo I, Riegler MF, Valenick L, LaMont JT, Pothoulakis C. Saccharomyces boulardii protease inhibits the effects of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B in human colonic mucosa. Infect Immun. 1999 Jan; 67(1):302-7. PMID: 9864230.
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    188. Percy WH, Burakoff R, Rose K, Desai HP, Pothoulakis C, Eglow R. In vitro evidence that rabbit distal colonic muscularis mucosae has a Clostridium difficile toxin A receptor. Am J Physiol. 1998 09; 275(3):G402-9. PMID: 9724250.
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    189. Choi RS, Riegler M, Pothoulakis C, Kim BS, Mooney D, Vacanti M, Vacanti JP. Studies of brush border enzymes, basement membrane components, and electrophysiology of tissue-engineered neointestine. J Pediatr Surg. 1998 Jul; 33(7):991-6; discussion 996-7. PMID: 9694083.
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    190. Pothoulakis C, Castagliuolo I, Leeman SE, Wang CC, Li H, Hoffman BJ, Mezey E. Substance P receptor expression in intestinal epithelium in clostridium difficile toxin A enteritis in rats. Am J Physiol. 1998 07; 275(1):G68-75. PMID: 9655686.
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    191. Castagliuolo I, Keates AC, Wang CC, Pasha A, Valenick L, Kelly CP, Nikulasson ST, LaMont JT, Pothoulakis C. Clostridium difficile toxin A stimulates macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 production in rat intestinal epithelial cells. J Immunol. 1998 Jun 15; 160(12):6039-45. PMID: 9637520.
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    192. Castagliuolo I, Wershil BK, Karalis K, Pasha A, Nikulasson ST, Pothoulakis C. Colonic mucin release in response to immobilization stress is mast cell dependent. Am J Physiol. 1998 06; 274(6):G1094-1100. PMID: 9696710.
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    193. Mun EC, Mayol JM, Riegler M, O'Brien TC, Farokhzad OC, Song JC, Pothoulakis C, Hrnjez BJ, Matthews JB. Levamisole inhibits intestinal Cl- secretion via basolateral K+ channel blockade. Gastroenterology. 1998 Jun; 114(6):1257-67. PMID: 9609763.
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    194. Pothoulakis C, Castagliuolo I, Leeman SE. Neuroimmune mechanisms of intestinal responses to stress. Role of corticotropin-releasing factor and neurotensin. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 May 01; 840:635-48. PMID: 9629290.
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    195. Wershil BK, Castagliuolo I, Pothoulakis C. Direct evidence of mast cell involvement in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis in mice. Gastroenterology. 1998 May; 114(5):956-64. PMID: 9558284.
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    196. Castagliuolo I, Riegler M, Pasha A, Nikulasson S, Lu B, Gerard C, Gerard NP, Pothoulakis C. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor is required in Clostridium difficile- induced enteritis. J Clin Invest. 1998 Apr 15; 101(8):1547-50. PMID: 9541482.
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    197. Bhatia M, Saluja AK, Hofbauer B, Frossard JL, Lee HS, Castagliuolo I, Wang CC, Gerard N, Pothoulakis C, Steer ML. Role of substance P and the neurokinin 1 receptor in acute pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Apr 14; 95(8):4760-5. PMID: 9539812.
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    198. Pothoulakis C, Castagliuolo I, LaMont JT. Nerves and Intestinal Mast Cells Modulate Responses to Enterotoxins. News Physiol Sci. 1998 Apr; 13:58-63. PMID: 11390763.
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    199. Keates AC, Castagliuolo I, Qiu B, Nikulasson S, Sengupta A, Pothoulakis C. CGRP upregulation in dorsal root ganglia and ileal mucosa during Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis. Am J Physiol. 1998 01; 274(1):G196-202. PMID: 9458790.
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    200. Linevsky JK, Pothoulakis C, Keates S, Warny M, Keates AC, Lamont JT, Kelly CP. IL-8 release and neutrophil activation by Clostridium difficile toxin-exposed human monocytes. Am J Physiol. 1997 12; 273(6):G1333-40. PMID: 9435559.
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    201. Riegler M, Sedivy R, Sogukoglu T, Castagliuolo I, Pothoulakis C, Cosentini E, Bischof G, Hamilton G, Teleky B, Feil W, Lamont JT, Wenzl E. Epidermal growth factor attenuates Clostridium difficile toxin A- and B-induced damage of human colonic mucosa. Am J Physiol. 1997 11; 273(5):G1014-22. PMID: 9374697.
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    202. Salcedo J, Keates S, Pothoulakis C, Warny M, Castagliuolo I, LaMont JT, Kelly CP. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe Clostridium difficile colitis. Gut. 1997 Sep; 41(3):366-70. PMID: 9378393.
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    203. Castagliuolo I, Kelly CP, Qiu BS, Nikulasson ST, LaMont JT, Pothoulakis C. IL-11 inhibits Clostridium difficile toxin A enterotoxicity in rat ileum. Am J Physiol. 1997 Aug; 273(2 Pt 1):G333-41. PMID: 9277411.
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    204. Castagliuolo I, Keates AC, Qiu B, Kelly CP, Nikulasson S, Leeman SE, Pothoulakis C. Increased substance P responses in dorsal root ganglia and intestinal macrophages during Clostridium difficile toxin A enteritis in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 29; 94(9):4788-93. PMID: 9114070.
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    205. Kelly CP, Chetham S, Keates S, Bostwick EF, Roush AM, Castagliuolo I, LaMont JT, Pothoulakis C. Survival of anti-Clostridium difficile bovine immunoglobulin concentrate in the human gastrointestinal tract. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997 Feb; 41(2):236-41. PMID: 9021173.
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    206. Castagliuolo I, LaMont JT, Nikulasson ST, Pothoulakis C. Saccharomyces boulardii protease inhibits Clostridium difficile toxin A effects in the rat ileum. Infect Immun. 1996 Dec; 64(12):5225-32. PMID: 8945570.
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    207. Pothoulakis C. Pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996 Nov; 8(11):1041-7. PMID: 8944363.
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    208. Castagliuolo I, Lamont JT, Qiu B, Fleming SM, Bhaskar KR, Nikulasson ST, Kornetsky C, Pothoulakis C. Acute stress causes mucin release from rat colon: role of corticotropin releasing factor and mast cells. Am J Physiol. 1996 Nov; 271(5 Pt 1):G884-92. PMID: 8944704.
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    209. Castagliuolo I, Leeman SE, Bartolak-Suki E, Nikulasson S, Qiu B, Carraway RE, Pothoulakis C. A neurotensin antagonist, SR 48692, inhibits colonic responses to immobilization stress in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 29; 93(22):12611-5. PMID: 8901630.
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    210. Pothoulakis C, Gilbert RJ, Cladaras C, Castagliuolo I, Semenza G, Hitti Y, Montcrief JS, Linevsky J, Kelly CP, Nikulasson S, Desai HP, Wilkins TD, LaMont JT. Rabbit sucrase-isomaltase contains a functional intestinal receptor for Clostridium difficile toxin A. J Clin Invest. 1996 Aug 01; 98(3):641-9. PMID: 8698855.
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    211. Qiu B, Pothoulakis C, Castagliuolo I, Nikulasson Z, LaMont JT. Nitric oxide inhibits rat intestinal secretion by Clostridium difficile toxin A but not Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin. Gastroenterology. 1996 Aug; 111(2):409-18. PMID: 8690206.
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    212. Castagliuolo I, LaMont JT, Qiu B, Nikulasson ST, Pothoulakis C. A receptor decoy inhibits the enterotoxic effects of Clostridium difficile toxin A in rat ileum. Gastroenterology. 1996 Aug; 111(2):433-8. PMID: 8690209.
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    213. Pothoulakis C, Galili U, Castagliuolo I, Kelly CP, Nikulasson S, Dudeja PK, Brasitus TA, LaMont JT. A human antibody binds to alpha-galactose receptors and mimics the effects of Clostridium difficile toxin A in rat colon. Gastroenterology. 1996 Jun; 110(6):1704-12. PMID: 8964394.
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    214. Kelly CP, Pothoulakis C, Vavva F, Castagliuolo I, Bostwick EF, O'Keane JC, Keates S, LaMont JT. Anti-Clostridium difficile bovine immunoglobulin concentrate inhibits cytotoxicity and enterotoxicity of C. difficile toxins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996 Feb; 40(2):373-9. PMID: 8834883.
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    215. Burakoff R, Zhao L, Celifarco AJ, Rose KL, Donovan V, Pothoulakis C, Percy WH. Effects of purified Clostridium difficile toxin A on rabbit distal colon. Gastroenterology. 1995 Aug; 109(2):348-54. PMID: 7615182.
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    216. Kindon H, Pothoulakis C, Thim L, Lynch-Devaney K, Podolsky DK. Trefoil peptide protection of intestinal epithelial barrier function: cooperative interaction with mucin glycoprotein. Gastroenterology. 1995 Aug; 109(2):516-23. PMID: 7615201.
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    217. Riegler M, Sedivy R, Pothoulakis C, Hamilton G, Zacherl J, Bischof G, Cosentini E, Feil W, Schiessel R, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile toxin B is more potent than toxin A in damaging human colonic epithelium in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1995 May; 95(5):2004-11. PMID: 7738167.
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    218. Dillon ST, Rubin EJ, Yakubovich M, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, Feig LA, Gilbert RJ. Involvement of Ras-related Rho proteins in the mechanisms of action of Clostridium difficile toxin A and toxin B. Infect Immun. 1995 Apr; 63(4):1421-6. PMID: 7890404.
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    219. Gilbert RJ, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, Yakubovich M. Clostridium difficile toxin B activates calcium influx required for actin disassembly during cytotoxicity. Am J Physiol. 1995 Mar; 268(3 Pt 1):G487-95. PMID: 7900810.
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    220. Kelly CP, Keates S, Siegenberg D, Linevsky JK, Pothoulakis C, Brady HR. IL-8 secretion and neutrophil activation by HT-29 colonic epithelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1994 Dec; 267(6 Pt 1):G991-7. PMID: 7810667.
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    221. Kurose I, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, Anderson DC, Paulson JC, Miyasaka M, Wolf R, Granger DN. Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced microvascular dysfunction. Role of histamine. J Clin Invest. 1994 Nov; 94(5):1919-26. PMID: 7962537.
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    222. Castagliuolo I, LaMont JT, Letourneau R, Kelly C, O'Keane JC, Jaffer A, Theoharides TC, Pothoulakis C. Neuronal involvement in the intestinal effects of Clostridium difficile toxin A and Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin in rat ileum. Gastroenterology. 1994 Sep; 107(3):657-65. PMID: 7915699.
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    223. Kelly CP, Becker S, Linevsky JK, Joshi MA, O'Keane JC, Dickey BF, LaMont JT, Pothoulakis C. Neutrophil recruitment in Clostridium difficile toxin A enteritis in the rabbit. J Clin Invest. 1994 Mar; 93(3):1257-65. PMID: 7907603.
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    224. Pothoulakis C, Castagliuolo I, LaMont JT, Jaffer A, O'Keane JC, Snider RM, Leeman SE. CP-96,345, a substance P antagonist, inhibits rat intestinal responses to Clostridium difficile toxin A but not cholera toxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Feb 01; 91(3):947-51. PMID: 7508124.
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    225. Kelly CP, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile colitis. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jan 27; 330(4):257-62. PMID: 8043060.
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    226. Pothoulakis C, Karmeli F, Kelly CP, Eliakim R, Joshi MA, O'Keane CJ, Castagliuolo I, LaMont JT, Rachmilewitz D. Ketotifen inhibits Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis in rat ileum. Gastroenterology. 1993 Sep; 105(3):701-7. PMID: 8395445.
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    227. Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile colitis and diarrhea. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1993 Sep; 22(3):623-37. PMID: 8406734.
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    228. Malecka-Panas E, Triadafilopoulos G, Tsukamoto H, Howitt G, Pothoulakis C, LaMont T. Clostridium difficile toxin A stimulates enzyme secretion from isolated rat pancreatic acini. Mater Med Pol. 1993 Jul-Dec; 25(3-4):127-31. PMID: 7520960.
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    229. Pothoulakis C, Castagliuolo I, LaMont JT. Diagnostic tests for Clostridium difficile diarrhoea and colitis: past, present and future. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1993 Jul-Aug; 8(4):311-2. PMID: 8374085.
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    230. Pothoulakis C, Castagliuolo I, Kelly CP, Lamont JT. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis: pathogenesis and therapy. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1993 Jul; 3(1):17-32. PMID: 18611542.
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    231. Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP, Joshi MA, Gao N, O'Keane CJ, Castagliuolo I, Lamont JT. Saccharomyces boulardii inhibits Clostridium difficile toxin A binding and enterotoxicity in rat ileum. Gastroenterology. 1993 Apr; 104(4):1108-15. PMID: 8462799.
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    232. Beubler E, Schirgi-Degen A, Pabst MA, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT. Effects of purified Clostridium difficile toxin A in the small intestine of the rat in vivo. Nat Toxins. 1993; 1(6):369-75. PMID: 7909488.
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    233. Eglow R, Pothoulakis C, Itzkowitz S, Israel EJ, O'Keane CJ, Gong D, Gao N, Xu YL, Walker WA, LaMont JT. Diminished Clostridium difficile toxin A sensitivity in newborn rabbit ileum is associated with decreased toxin A receptor. J Clin Invest. 1992 Sep; 90(3):822-9. PMID: 1325998.
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    234. Hecht G, Koutsouris A, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, Madara JL. Clostridium difficile toxin B disrupts the barrier function of T84 monolayers. Gastroenterology. 1992 Feb; 102(2):416-23. PMID: 1732112.
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    235. Kelly CP, Pothoulakis C, Orellana J, LaMont JT. Human colonic aspirates containing immunoglobulin A antibody to Clostridium difficile toxin A inhibit toxin A-receptor binding. Gastroenterology. 1992 Jan; 102(1):35-40. PMID: 1309359.
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    236. Triadafilopoulos G, Shah MH, Pothoulakis C. The chemotactic response of human granulocytes to Clostridium difficile toxin A is age dependent. Am J Gastroenterol. 1991 Oct; 86(10):1461-5. PMID: 1928037.
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    237. Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, Eglow R, Gao N, Rubins JB, Theoharides TC, Dickey BF. Characterization of rabbit ileal receptors for Clostridium difficile toxin A. Evidence for a receptor-coupled G protein. J Clin Invest. 1991 Jul; 88(1):119-25. PMID: 1905325.
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    238. Leung DY, Kelly CP, Boguniewicz M, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, Flores A. Treatment with intravenously administered gamma globulin of chronic relapsing colitis induced by Clostridium difficile toxin. J Pediatr. 1991 Apr; 118(4 Pt 1):633-7. PMID: 1901084.
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    239. Moore R, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, Carlson S, Madara JL. C. difficile toxin A increases intestinal permeability and induces Cl- secretion. Am J Physiol. 1990 Aug; 259(2 Pt 1):G165-72. PMID: 2116728.
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    240. Miller PD, Pothoulakis C, Baeker TR, LaMont JT, Rothstein TL. Macrophage-dependent stimulation of T cell-depleted spleen cells by Clostridium difficile toxin A and calcium ionophore. Cell Immunol. 1990 Mar; 126(1):155-63. PMID: 2105851.
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    241. Triadafilopoulos G, Pothoulakis C, Weiss R, Giampaolo C, Lamont JT. Comparative study of Clostridium difficile toxin A and cholera toxin in rabbit ileum. Gastroenterology. 1989 Nov; 97(5):1186-92. PMID: 2551764.
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    242. Gilbert RJ, Triadafilopoulos G, Pothoulakis C, Giampaolo C, LaMont JT. Effect of purified Clostridium difficile toxins on intestinal smooth muscle. I. Toxin A. Am J Physiol. 1989 Apr; 256(4 Pt 1):G759-66. PMID: 2495733.
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    243. Gilbert RJ, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT. Effect of purified Clostridium difficile toxins on intestinal smooth muscle. II. Toxin B. Am J Physiol. 1989 Apr; 256(4 Pt 1):G767-72. PMID: 2495734.
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    244. Hecht G, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, Madara JL. Clostridium difficile toxin A perturbs cytoskeletal structure and tight junction permeability of cultured human intestinal epithelial monolayers. J Clin Invest. 1988 Nov; 82(5):1516-24. PMID: 3141478.
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    245. Pothoulakis C, Sullivan R, Melnick DA, Triadafilopoulos G, Gadenne AS, Meshulam T, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile toxin A stimulates intracellular calcium release and chemotactic response in human granulocytes. J Clin Invest. 1988 Jun; 81(6):1741-5. PMID: 2838520.
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    246. Triadafilopoulos G, Pothoulakis C, O'Brien MJ, LaMont JT. Differential effects of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B on rabbit ileum. Gastroenterology. 1987 Aug; 93(2):273-9. PMID: 3596162.
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    247. Pothoulakis C, Triadafilopoulos G, Clark M, Franzblau C, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile cytotoxin inhibits protein synthesis in fibroblasts and intestinal mucosa. Gastroenterology. 1986 Nov; 91(5):1147-53. PMID: 3758606.
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    248. Pothoulakis C, Barone LM, Ely R, Faris B, Clark ME, Franzblau C, LaMont JT. Purification and properties of Clostridium difficile cytotoxin B. J Biol Chem. 1986 Jan 25; 261(3):1316-21. PMID: 3944088.
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    249. Wedel N, Toselli P, Pothoulakis C, Faris B, Oliver P, Franzblau C, LaMont T. Ultrastructural effects of Clostridium difficile toxin B on smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. Exp Cell Res. 1983 Oct 15; 148(2):413-22. PMID: 6628564.
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