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Modlin Robert

Title(s)Professor, Dermatology
Phone(310) 917-3376
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Professor, Microbiology Immunology & Molecular Genetics


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    IL-26 in host defense against infection by intracellular bacteria in skin
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR073252Jul 12, 2019 - Apr 30, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The skin microbiome in acne
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR074302Aug 13, 2018 - May 31, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Dermatology Scientist Training Program
    NIH/NIAMS T32AR071307Jul 1, 2017 - Jun 30, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Modeling granuloma formation using engineered microcapsules
    NIH/NIAID R21AI121779Apr 15, 2016 - Mar 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Immunobiology of Leprosy
    NIH/NIAMS P50AR063020Aug 16, 2012 - Jul 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Deriving P. acnes Bacteriophages from Skin for Acne Therapy
    NIH/NIAMS R21AR060382Apr 1, 2011 - Mar 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Danaher (Leica) TCS SP5 Confocal System
    NIH/NCRR S10RR027083May 13, 2010 - May 12, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Dermatology Scientist Training Program
    NIH/NIAMS T32AR058921May 1, 2010 - Apr 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Application of Novel Antigens and Integrated Microfluidics for Leprosy Diagnosis
    NIH/NIAID R01AI082575Sep 28, 2009 - Aug 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Vitamin D Prohormone 25-OHD in the Immune Response to Tuberculosis
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL119068Jun 1, 2008 - Jun 30, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Vitamin D Prohormone 25-OHD in the Innate Immune Response to Tuberculosis
    NIH/NIAID R01AI073539Jun 1, 2008 - May 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    GRANULYSIN: ANTIMICROBIAL/ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ROLE IN ACNE
    NIH/NIAID R01AI059091Jul 1, 2005 - Mar 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CD1-targeted Vaccination against Tuberculosis
    NIH/NIAID U01AI056489Aug 1, 2003 - Jan 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Divergence of Phagocytic and Antimicrobial Programs in Leprosy
    NIH/NIAID R01AI047868Sep 1, 2000 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ROLE OF TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS IN SKIN
    NIH/NIAID R37AI047868Sep 1, 2000 - Feb 28, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    LOCAL T-CELL RESPONSE IN HUMAN LEISHMANIASIS
    NIH/NIAID R01AI034032Sep 30, 1996 - Aug 31, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MODULATION OF T CELL RESPONSES IN TB AND HIV INFECTION
    NIH/NIAID R01AI036069Sep 1, 1994 - May 31, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator
    T-CELL AND CYTOKINE PATTERNS IN CUTANEOUS CARCINOMA
    NIH/NCI R01CA056860Apr 1, 1992 - Mar 31, 1995
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CD1-restricted T-cell Responses in Skin
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR040312Mar 1, 1990 - Apr 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular Analysis of Host Immune Response in Leprosy
    NIH/NIAID R01AI022553Apr 1, 1986 - Jun 30, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IMMUNOREGULATORY T-LYMPHOCYTES IN LEPROSY SKIN LESIONS
    NIH/NIAID R22AI022553Apr 1, 1986 - Jun 30, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IMMUNOREGULATION IN LEPROSY GRANULOMAS
    NIH/NIAID R23AI022187Sep 1, 1985 - Aug 31, 1988
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Modlin RL. Response to Comment on "IL-1ß Induces the Rapid Secretion of the Antimicrobial Protein IL-26 from Th17 Cells". J Immunol. 2019 Dec 15; 203(12):3093. PMID: 31818921.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Tió-Coma M, van Hooij A, Bobosha K, van der Ploeg-van Schip JJ, Banu S, Khadge S, Thapa P, Kunwar CB, Goulart IM, Bekele Y, Hagge DA, Moraes MO, Teles RMB, Pinheiro RO, van Zwet EW, Goeman JJ, Aseffa A, Haks MC, Ottenhoff THM, Modlin RL, Geluk A. Whole blood RNA signatures in leprosy patients identify reversal reactions before clinical onset: a prospective, multicenter study. Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 29; 9(1):17931. PMID: 31784594.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Teles RMB, Lu J, Tió-Coma M, Goulart IMB, Banu S, Hagge D, Bobosha K, Ottenhoff THM, Pellegrini M, Geluk A, Modlin RL. Identification of a systemic interferon-? inducible antimicrobial gene signature in leprosy patients undergoing reversal reaction. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Oct; 13(10):e0007764. PMID: 31600201.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Yang R, Yang E, Shen L, Modlin RL, Shen H, Chen ZW. Correction: IL-12+IL-18 Cosignaling in Human Macrophages and Lung Epithelial Cells Activates Cathelicidin and Autophagy, Inhibiting Intracellular Mycobacterial Growth. J Immunol. 2019 Oct 01; 203(7):2020. PMID: 31471522.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Yang R, Yao L, Shen L, Sha W, Modlin RL, Shen H, Chen ZW. Corrigendum: IL-12 Expands and Differentiates Human V?2Vd2 T Effector Cells Producing Antimicrobial Cytokines and Inhibiting Intracellular Mycobacterial Growth. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:1742. PMID: 31404161.
      View in: PubMed
    6. R Andrade P, Mehta M, Lu J, M B Teles R, Montoya D, O Scumpia P, Nunes Sarno E, Ochoa MT, Ma F, Pellegrini M, Modlin RL. The cell fate regulator NUPR1 is induced by Mycobacterium leprae via type I interferon in human leprosy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 07; 13(7):e0007589. PMID: 31344041.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Weiss DI, Ma F, Merleev AA, Maverakis E, Gilliet M, Balin SJ, Bryson BD, Ochoa MT, Pellegrini M, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. IL-1ß Induces the Rapid Secretion of the Antimicrobial Protein IL-26 from Th17 Cells. J Immunol. 2019 Aug 15; 203(4):911-921. PMID: 31235553.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Kim EW, De Leon A, Jiang Z, Radu RA, Martineau AR, Chan ED, Bai X, Su WL, Montoya DJ, Modlin RL, Liu PT. Vitamin A Metabolism by Dendritic Cells Triggers an Antimicrobial Response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. mSphere. 2019 06 05; 4(3). PMID: 31167948.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Bryson BD, Rosebrock TR, Tafesse FG, Itoh CY, Nibasumba A, Babunovic GH, Corleis B, Martin C, Keegan C, Andrade P, Realegeno S, Kwon D, Modlin RL, Fortune SM. Heterogeneous GM-CSF signaling in macrophages is associated with control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nat Commun. 2019 05 27; 10(1):2329. PMID: 31133636.
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    10. Yang R, Yao L, Shen L, Sha W, Modlin RL, Shen H, Chen ZW. IL-12 Expands and Differentiates Human V?2Vd2 T Effector Cells Producing Antimicrobial Cytokines and Inhibiting Intracellular Mycobacterial Growth. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:913. PMID: 31080452.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Dang AT, Teles RM, Liu PT, Choi A, Legaspi A, Sarno EN, Ochoa MT, Parvatiyar K, Cheng G, Gilliet M, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Autophagy links antimicrobial activity with antigen presentation in Langerhans cells. JCI Insight. 2019 Apr 18; 4(8). PMID: 30996142.
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    12. Dang AT, Teles RM, Weiss DI, Parvatiyar K, Sarno EN, Ochoa MT, Cheng G, Gilliet M, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. IL-26 contributes to host defense against intracellular bacteria. J Clin Invest. 2019 04 02; 129(5):1926-1939. PMID: 30939123.
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    13. Cheng Q, Behzadi F, Sen S, Ohta S, Spreafico R, Teles R, Modlin RL, Hoffmann A. Sequential conditioning-stimulation reveals distinct gene- and stimulus-specific effects of Type I and II IFN on human macrophage functions. Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 27; 9(1):5288. PMID: 30918279.
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    14. Montoya DJ, Andrade P, Silva BJA, Teles RMB, Ma F, Bryson B, Sadanand S, Noel T, Lu J, Sarno E, Arnvig KB, Young D, Lahiri R, Williams DL, Fortune S, Bloom BR, Pellegrini M, Modlin RL. Dual RNA-Seq of Human Leprosy Lesions Identifies Bacterial Determinants Linked to Host Immune Response. Cell Rep. 2019 03 26; 26(13):3574-3585.e3. PMID: 30917313.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Montoya D, Mehta M, Ferguson BG, Teles RMB, Krutzik SR, Cruz D, Pellegrini M, Modlin RL. Plasticity of antimicrobial and phagocytic programs in human macrophages. Immunology. 2019 02; 156(2):164-173. PMID: 30357820.
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    16. Avni E, Montoya D, Lopez D, Modlin R, Pellegrini M, Snir S. A phylogenomic study quantifies competing mechanisms for pseudogenization in prokaryotes-The Mycobacterium leprae case. PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0204322. PMID: 30383852.
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    17. Zavala K, Gottlieb CA, Teles RM, Adams JS, Hewison M, Modlin RL, Liu PT. Intrinsic activation of the vitamin D antimicrobial pathway by M. leprae infection is inhibited by type I IFN. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 10; 12(10):e0006815. PMID: 30300363.
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    18. Balin SJ, Pellegrini M, Klechevsky E, Won ST, Weiss DI, Choi AW, Hakimian J, Lu J, Ochoa MT, Bloom BR, Lanier LL, Stenger S, Modlin RL. Human antimicrobial cytotoxic T lymphocytes, defined by NK receptors and antimicrobial proteins, kill intracellular bacteria. Sci Immunol. 2018 08 31; 3(26). PMID: 30171080.
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    19. Kim EW, Teles RMB, Haile S, Liu PT, Modlin RL. Vitamin D status contributes to the antimicrobial activity of macrophages against Mycobacterium leprae. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 07; 12(7):e0006608. PMID: 29965969.
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    20. Keegan C, Krutzik S, Schenk M, Scumpia PO, Lu J, Pang YLJ, Russell BS, Lim KS, Shell S, Prestwich E, Su D, Elashoff D, Hershberg RM, Bloom BR, Belisle JT, Fortune S, Dedon PC, Pellegrini M, Modlin RL. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transfer RNA Induces IL-12p70 via Synergistic Activation of Pattern Recognition Receptors within a Cell Network. J Immunol. 2018 05 01; 200(9):3244-3258. PMID: 29610140.
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    21. Cheng L, Marinelli LJ, Grosset N, Fitz-Gibbon ST, Bowman CA, Dang BQ, Russell DA, Jacobs-Sera D, Shi B, Pellegrini M, Miller JF, Gautier M, Hatfull GF, Modlin RL. Complete genomic sequences of Propionibacterium freudenreichii phages from Swiss cheese reveal greater diversity than Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes phages. BMC Microbiol. 2018 03 01; 18(1):19. PMID: 29490612.
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    22. Yang R, Yang E, Shen L, Modlin RL, Shen H, Chen ZW. IL-12+IL-18 Cosignaling in Human Macrophages and Lung Epithelial Cells Activates Cathelicidin and Autophagy, Inhibiting Intracellular Mycobacterial Growth. J Immunol. 2018 04 01; 200(7):2405-2417. PMID: 29453279.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Lopez D, Montoya D, Ambrose M, Lam L, Briscoe L, Adams C, Modlin RL, Pellegrini M. SaVanT: a web-based tool for the sample-level visualization of molecular signatures in gene expression profiles. BMC Genomics. 2017 Oct 25; 18(1):824. PMID: 29070035.
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    24. Madigan CA, Cambier CJ, Kelly-Scumpia KM, Scumpia PO, Cheng TY, Zailaa J, Bloom BR, Moody DB, Smale ST, Sagasti A, Modlin RL, Ramakrishnan L. A Macrophage Response to Mycobacterium leprae Phenolic Glycolipid Initiates Nerve Damage in Leprosy. Cell. 2017 Aug 24; 170(5):973-985.e10. PMID: 28841420.
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    25. Scumpia PO, Botten GA, Norman JS, Kelly-Scumpia KM, Spreafico R, Ruccia AR, Purbey PK, Thomas BJ, Modlin RL, Smale ST. Opposing roles of Toll-like receptor and cytosolic DNA-STING signaling pathways for Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous host defense. PLoS Pathog. 2017 Jul; 13(7):e1006496. PMID: 28704551.
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    26. Wang L, Liu SY, Chen HW, Xu J, Chapon M, Zhang T, Zhou F, Wang YE, Quanquin N, Wang G, Tian X, He Z, Liu L, Yu W, Sanchez DJ, Liang Y, Jiang T, Modlin R, Bloom BR, Li Q, Deng JC, Zhou P, Qin FX, Cheng G. Generation of a Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine that Elicits Broad Protection in Mice and Ferrets. Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Mar 08; 21(3):334-343. PMID: 28279345.
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    27. Inkeles MS, Teles RM, Pouldar D, Andrade PR, Madigan CA, Lopez D, Ambrose M, Noursadeghi M, Sarno EN, Rea TH, Ochoa MT, Iruela-Arispe ML, Swindell WR, Ottenhoff TH, Geluk A, Bloom BR, Pellegrini M, Modlin RL. Cell-type deconvolution with immune pathways identifies gene networks of host defense and immunopathology in leprosy. JCI Insight. 2016 09 22; 1(15):e88843. PMID: 27699251.
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    28. Schenk M, Mahapatra S, Le P, Kim HJ, Choi AW, Brennan PJ, Belisle JT, Modlin RL. Human NOD2 Recognizes Structurally Unique Muramyl Dipeptides from Mycobacterium leprae. Infect Immun. 2016 09; 84(9):2429-38. PMID: 27297389.
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    29. Kibbie J, Teles RM, Wang Z, Hong P, Montoya D, Krutzik S, Lee S, Kwon O, Modlin RL, Cruz D. Jagged1 Instructs Macrophage Differentiation in Leprosy. PLoS Pathog. 2016 08; 12(8):e1005808. PMID: 27532668.
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    30. Escuin-Ordinas H, Li S, Xie MW, Sun L, Hugo W, Huang RR, Jiao J, de-Faria FM, Realegeno S, Krystofinski P, Azhdam A, Komenan SM, Atefi M, Comin-Anduix B, Pellegrini M, Cochran AJ, Modlin RL, Herschman HR, Lo RS, McBride WH, Segura T, Ribas A. Cutaneous wound healing through paradoxical MAPK activation by BRAF inhibitors. Nat Commun. 2016 08 01; 7:12348. PMID: 27476449.
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    31. Busch M, Herzmann C, Kallert S, Zimmermann A, Höfer C, Mayer D, Zenk SF, Muche R, Lange C, Bloom BR, Modlin RL, Stenger S. Lipoarabinomannan-Responsive Polycytotoxic T Cells Are Associated with Protection in Human Tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 08 01; 194(3):345-55. PMID: 26882070.
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    32. Yu Y, Champer J, Agak GW, Kao S, Modlin RL, Kim J. Different Propionibacterium acnes Phylotypes Induce Distinct Immune Responses and Express Unique Surface and Secreted Proteomes. J Invest Dermatol. 2016 11; 136(11):2221-2228. PMID: 27377696.
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    33. Realegeno S, Kelly-Scumpia KM, Dang AT, Lu J, Teles R, Liu PT, Schenk M, Lee EY, Schmidt NW, Wong GC, Sarno EN, Rea TH, Ochoa MT, Pellegrini M, Modlin RL. S100A12 Is Part of the Antimicrobial Network against Mycobacterium leprae in Human Macrophages. PLoS Pathog. 2016 06; 12(6):e1005705. PMID: 27355424.
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    34. Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Mechanisms of Defense against Intracellular Pathogens Mediated by Human Macrophages. Microbiol Spectr. 2016 06; 4(3). PMID: 27337485.
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    35. Steiger J, Stephan A, Inkeles MS, Realegeno S, Bruns H, Kröll P, de Castro Kroner J, Sommer A, Batinica M, Pitzler L, Kalscheuer R, Hartmann P, Plum G, Stenger S, Pellegrini M, Brachvogel B, Modlin RL, Fabri M. Imatinib Triggers Phagolysosome Acidification and Antimicrobial Activity against Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin in Glucocorticoid-Treated Human Macrophages. J Immunol. 2016 07 01; 197(1):222-32. PMID: 27233968.
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    36. Ochoa MT, Vaccaro S, Jerskey R, Mora H, Peng D, Modlin RL. Thomas Herald Rea, MD (1929-2016). Lepr Rev. 2016 Mar; 87(1):130-1. PMID: 27255071.
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    37. Demaria O, De Gassart A, Coso S, Gestermann N, Di Domizio J, Flatz L, Gaide O, Michielin O, Hwu P, Petrova TV, Martinon F, Modlin RL, Speiser DE, Gilliet M. STING activation of tumor endothelial cells initiates spontaneous and therapeutic antitumor immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Dec 15; 112(50):15408-13. PMID: 26607445.
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    38. Meller S, Di Domizio J, Voo KS, Friedrich HC, Chamilos G, Ganguly D, Conrad C, Gregorio J, Le Roy D, Roger T, Ladbury JE, Homey B, Watowich S, Modlin RL, Kontoyiannis DP, Liu YJ, Arold ST, Gilliet M. T(H)17 cells promote microbial killing and innate immune sensing of DNA via interleukin 26. Nat Immunol. 2015 Sep; 16(9):970-9. PMID: 26168081.
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    39. Teles RMB, Kelly-Scumpia KM, Sarno EN, Rea TH, Ochoa MT, Cheng G, Modlin RL. IL-27 Suppresses Antimicrobial Activity in Human Leprosy. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Oct; 135(10):2410-2417. PMID: 26030183.
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    40. Cappuccio A, Zollinger R, Schenk M, Walczak A, Servant N, Barillot E, Hupé P, Modlin RL, Soumelis V. Combinatorial code governing cellular responses to complex stimuli. Nat Commun. 2015 Apr 21; 6:6847. PMID: 25896517.
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    41. Bourgeois EA, Subramaniam S, Cheng TY, De Jong A, Layre E, Ly D, Salimi M, Legaspi A, Modlin RL, Salio M, Cerundolo V, Moody DB, Ogg G. Bee venom processes human skin lipids for presentation by CD1a. J Exp Med. 2015 Feb 09; 212(2):149-63. PMID: 25584012.
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    42. Kim HJ, Brennan PJ, Heaslip D, Udey MC, Modlin RL, Belisle JT. Carbohydrate-dependent binding of langerin to SodC, a cell wall glycoprotein of Mycobacterium leprae. J Bacteriol. 2015 Feb; 197(3):615-25. PMID: 25422308.
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    43. Montoya D, Inkeles MS, Liu PT, Realegeno S, Teles RM, Vaidya P, Munoz MA, Schenk M, Swindell WR, Chun R, Zavala K, Hewison M, Adams JS, Horvath S, Pellegrini M, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. IL-32 is a molecular marker of a host defense network in human tuberculosis. Sci Transl Med. 2014 Aug 20; 6(250):250ra114. PMID: 25143364.
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    44. Inkeles MS, Scumpia PO, Swindell WR, Lopez D, Teles RMB, Graeber TG, Meller S, Homey B, Elder JT, Gilliet M, Modlin RL, Pellegrini M. Comparison of molecular signatures from multiple skin diseases identifies mechanisms of immunopathogenesis. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Jan; 135(1):151-159. PMID: 25111617.
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    45. Chun RF, Liu PT, Modlin RL, Adams JS, Hewison M. Impact of vitamin D on immune function: lessons learned from genome-wide analysis. Front Physiol. 2014; 5:151. PMID: 24795646.
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    46. Schenk M, Fabri M, Krutzik SR, Lee DJ, Vu DM, Sieling PA, Montoya D, Liu PT, Modlin RL. Interleukin-1ß triggers the differentiation of macrophages with enhanced capacity to present mycobacterial antigen to T cells. Immunology. 2014 Feb; 141(2):174-80. PMID: 24032597.
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    47. Modlin RL, Bloom BR. TB or not TB: that is no longer the question. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Nov 27; 5(213):213sr6. PMID: 24285487.
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    48. Klug-Micu GM, Stenger S, Sommer A, Liu PT, Krutzik SR, Modlin RL, Fabri M. CD40 ligand and interferon-? induce an antimicrobial response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human monocytes. Immunology. 2013 May; 139(1):121-8. PMID: 23289765.
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    49. Teles RM, Graeber TG, Krutzik SR, Montoya D, Schenk M, Lee DJ, Komisopoulou E, Kelly-Scumpia K, Chun R, Iyer SS, Sarno EN, Rea TH, Hewison M, Adams JS, Popper SJ, Relman DA, Stenger S, Bloom BR, Cheng G, Modlin RL. Type I interferon suppresses type II interferon-triggered human anti-mycobacterial responses. Science. 2013 Mar 22; 339(6126):1448-53. PMID: 23449998.
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    50. Fitz-Gibbon S, Tomida S, Chiu BH, Nguyen L, Du C, Liu M, Elashoff D, Erfe MC, Loncaric A, Kim J, Modlin RL, Miller JF, Sodergren E, Craft N, Weinstock GM, Li H. Propionibacterium acnes strain populations in the human skin microbiome associated with acne. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 Sep; 133(9):2152-60. PMID: 23337890.
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    51. Chung AW, Sieling PA, Schenk M, Teles RM, Krutzik SR, Hsu DK, Liu FT, Sarno EN, Rea TH, Stenger S, Modlin RL, Lee DJ. Galectin-3 regulates the innate immune response of human monocytes. J Infect Dis. 2013 Mar 15; 207(6):947-56. PMID: 23255567.
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    52. Friedman AJ, Phan J, Schairer DO, Champer J, Qin M, Pirouz A, Blecher-Paz K, Oren A, Liu PT, Modlin RL, Kim J. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of chitosan-alginate nanoparticles: a targeted therapy for cutaneous pathogens. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 May; 133(5):1231-9. PMID: 23190896.
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    53. Parvatiyar K, Zhang Z, Teles RM, Ouyang S, Jiang Y, Iyer SS, Zaver SA, Schenk M, Zeng S, Zhong W, Liu ZJ, Modlin RL, Liu YJ, Cheng G. The helicase DDX41 recognizes the bacterial secondary messengers cyclic di-GMP and cyclic di-AMP to activate a type I interferon immune response. Nat Immunol. 2012 Dec; 13(12):1155-61. PMID: 23142775.
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    54. Jacobs-Sera D, Marinelli LJ, Bowman C, Broussard GW, Guerrero Bustamante C, Boyle MM, Petrova ZO, Dedrick RM, Pope WH, Modlin RL, Hendrix RW, Hatfull GF. On the nature of mycobacteriophage diversity and host preference. Virology. 2012 Dec 20; 434(2):187-201. PMID: 23084079.
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    55. Marinelli LJ, Fitz-Gibbon S, Hayes C, Bowman C, Inkeles M, Loncaric A, Russell DA, Jacobs-Sera D, Cokus S, Pellegrini M, Kim J, Miller JF, Hatfull GF, Modlin RL. Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophages display limited genetic diversity and broad killing activity against bacterial skin isolates. MBio. 2012; 3(5). PMID: 23015740.
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    56. Bruns H, Stegelmann F, Fabri M, Döhner K, van Zandbergen G, Wagner M, Skinner M, Modlin RL, Stenger S. Abelson tyrosine kinase controls phagosomal acidification required for killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages. J Immunol. 2012 Oct 15; 189(8):4069-78. PMID: 22988030.
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    57. Chamilos G, Gregorio J, Meller S, Lande R, Kontoyiannis DP, Modlin RL, Gilliet M. Cytosolic sensing of extracellular self-DNA transported into monocytes by the antimicrobial peptide LL37. Blood. 2012 Nov 01; 120(18):3699-707. PMID: 22927244.
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    58. Torrelles JB, Sieling PA, Zhang N, Keen MA, McNeil MR, Belisle JT, Modlin RL, Brennan PJ, Chatterjee D. Isolation of a distinct Mycobacterium tuberculosis mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan isoform responsible for recognition by CD1b-restricted T cells. Glycobiology. 2012 Aug; 22(8):1118-27. PMID: 22534567.
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    59. Schenk M, Krutzik SR, Sieling PA, Lee DJ, Teles RM, Ochoa MT, Komisopoulou E, Sarno EN, Rea TH, Graeber TG, Kim S, Cheng G, Modlin RL. NOD2 triggers an interleukin-32-dependent human dendritic cell program in leprosy. Nat Med. 2012 Mar 25; 18(4):555-63. PMID: 22447076.
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    60. Bickers DR, Modlin RL. A review of the Journal of Investigative Dermatology's most cited publications over the past 25 years and the use of developing bibliometric methodologies to assess journal quality. J Invest Dermatol. 2012 Mar; 132(3 Pt 2):1050-60. PMID: 22330274.
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    61. Hou W, Gibbs JS, Lu X, Brooke CB, Roy D, Modlin RL, Bennink JR, Yewdell JW. Viral infection triggers rapid differentiation of human blood monocytes into dendritic cells. Blood. 2012 Mar 29; 119(13):3128-31. PMID: 22310910.
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    62. Liu PT, Wheelwright M, Teles R, Komisopoulou E, Edfeldt K, Ferguson B, Mehta MD, Vazirnia A, Rea TH, Sarno EN, Graeber TG, Modlin RL. MicroRNA-21 targets the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway in leprosy. Nat Med. 2012 Jan 29; 18(2):267-73. PMID: 22286305.
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    63. Modlin RL. Innate immunity: ignored for decades, but not forgotten. J Invest Dermatol. 2012 Mar; 132(3 Pt 2):882-6. PMID: 22158552.
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    64. Realegeno S, Modlin RL. Shedding light on the vitamin D-tuberculosis-HIV connection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 22; 108(47):18861-2. PMID: 22084116.
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    65. Fabri M, Stenger S, Shin DM, Yuk JM, Liu PT, Realegeno S, Lee HM, Krutzik SR, Schenk M, Sieling PA, Teles R, Montoya D, Iyer SS, Bruns H, Lewinsohn DM, Hollis BW, Hewison M, Adams JS, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Cheng G, Jo EK, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Vitamin D is required for IFN-gamma-mediated antimicrobial activity of human macrophages. Sci Transl Med. 2011 Oct 12; 3(104):104ra102. PMID: 21998409.
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    66. Torrelles JB, Sieling PA, Arcos J, Knaup R, Bartling C, Rajaram MV, Stenger S, Modlin RL, Schlesinger LS. Structural differences in lipomannans from pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria that impact CD1b-restricted T cell responses. J Biol Chem. 2011 Oct 14; 286(41):35438-46. PMID: 21859718.
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    67. Walker VP, Zhang X, Rastegar I, Liu PT, Hollis BW, Adams JS, Modlin RL. Cord blood vitamin D status impacts innate immune responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jun; 96(6):1835-43. PMID: 21470993.
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    68. Cruz D, Wang Z, Kibbie J, Modlin R, Kwon O. Diversity through phosphine catalysis identifies octahydro-1,6-naphthyridin-4-ones as activators of endothelium-driven immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Apr 26; 108(17):6769-74. PMID: 21383121.
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    69. Cho JS, Zussman J, Donegan NP, Ramos RI, Garcia NC, Uslan DZ, Iwakura Y, Simon SI, Cheung AL, Modlin RL, Kim J, Miller LS. Noninvasive in vivo imaging to evaluate immune responses and antimicrobial therapy against Staphylococcus aureus and USA300 MRSA skin infections. J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Apr; 131(4):907-15. PMID: 21191403.
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    70. Glimcher LH, Martinon F, Modlin RL. Editorial overview. Curr Opin Immunol. 2011 Feb; 23(1):1-2. PMID: 21185707.
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    71. Edfeldt K, Liu PT, Chun R, Fabri M, Schenk M, Wheelwright M, Keegan C, Krutzik SR, Adams JS, Hewison M, Modlin RL. T-cell cytokines differentially control human monocyte antimicrobial responses by regulating vitamin D metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 28; 107(52):22593-8. PMID: 21149724.
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    72. Fabri M, Realegeno SE, Jo EK, Modlin RL. Role of autophagy in the host response to microbial infection and potential for therapy. Curr Opin Immunol. 2011 Feb; 23(1):65-70. PMID: 21071195.
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    73. Ochoa MT, Teles R, Haas BE, Zaghi D, Li H, Sarno EN, Rea TH, Modlin RL, Lee DJ. A role for interleukin-5 in promoting increased immunoglobulin M at the site of disease in leprosy. Immunology. 2010 Nov; 131(3):405-14. PMID: 20561085.
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    74. Teles RM, Krutzik SR, Ochoa MT, Oliveira RB, Sarno EN, Modlin RL. Interleukin-4 regulates the expression of CD209 and subsequent uptake of Mycobacterium leprae by Schwann cells in human leprosy. Infect Immun. 2010 Nov; 78(11):4634-43. PMID: 20713631.
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    75. Shin DM, Yuk JM, Lee HM, Lee SH, Son JW, Harding CV, Kim JM, Modlin RL, Jo EK. Mycobacterial lipoprotein activates autophagy via TLR2/1/CD14 and a functional vitamin D receptor signalling. Cell Microbiol. 2010 Nov; 12(11):1648-65. PMID: 20560977.
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    76. Chun RF, Lauridsen AL, Suon L, Zella LA, Pike JW, Modlin RL, Martineau AR, Wilkinson RJ, Adams J, Hewison M. Vitamin D-binding protein directs monocyte responses to 25-hydroxy- and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jul; 95(7):3368-76. PMID: 20427486.
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    77. Cho JS, Pietras EM, Garcia NC, Ramos RI, Farzam DM, Monroe HR, Magorien JE, Blauvelt A, Kolls JK, Cheung AL, Cheng G, Modlin RL, Miller LS. IL-17 is essential for host defense against cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010 May; 120(5):1762-73. PMID: 20364087.
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    78. Lee DJ, Li H, Ochoa MT, Tanaka M, Carbone RJ, Damoiseaux R, Burdick A, Sarno EN, Rea TH, Modlin RL. Integrated pathways for neutrophil recruitment and inflammation in leprosy. J Infect Dis. 2010 Feb 15; 201(4):558-69. PMID: 20070238.
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    79. Modlin RL. The innate immune response in leprosy. Curr Opin Immunol. 2010 Feb; 22(1):48-54. PMID: 20060279.
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    81. Schenk M, Belisle JT, Modlin RL. TLR2 looks at lipoproteins. Immunity. 2009 Dec 18; 31(6):847-9. PMID: 20064441.
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    82. Montoya D, Cruz D, Teles RM, Lee DJ, Ochoa MT, Krutzik SR, Chun R, Schenk M, Zhang X, Ferguson BG, Burdick AE, Sarno EN, Rea TH, Hewison M, Adams JS, Cheng G, Modlin RL. Divergence of macrophage phagocytic and antimicrobial programs in leprosy. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 Oct 22; 6(4):343-53. PMID: 19837374.
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    83. Fabri M, Modlin RL. A vitamin for autophagy. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 Sep 17; 6(3):201-3. PMID: 19748462.
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    84. Modlin RL, Brenner MB. T cell responses in microbial infection. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009 Aug; 21(4):365-6. PMID: 19643590.
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    85. Tanaka M, Krutzik SR, Sieling PA, Lee DJ, Rea TH, Modlin RL. Activation of Fc gamma RI on monocytes triggers differentiation into immature dendritic cells that induce autoreactive T cell responses. J Immunol. 2009 Aug 15; 183(4):2349-55. PMID: 19635920.
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    86. Shin OS, Miller LS, Modlin RL, Akira S, Uematsu S, Hu LT. Downstream signals for MyD88-mediated phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi can be initiated by TRIF and are dependent on PI3K. J Immunol. 2009 Jul 01; 183(1):491-8. PMID: 19542460.
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    87. Liu PT, Schenk M, Walker VP, Dempsey PW, Kanchanapoomi M, Wheelwright M, Vazirnia A, Zhang X, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Hollis BW, Cheng G, Modlin RL. Convergence of IL-1beta and VDR activation pathways in human TLR2/1-induced antimicrobial responses. PLoS One. 2009 Jun 05; 4(6):e5810. PMID: 19503839.
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    88. Walker VP, Modlin RL. The vitamin D connection to pediatric infections and immune function. Pediatr Res. 2009 May; 65(5 Pt 2):106R-113R. PMID: 19190532.
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    89. Bruns H, Meinken C, Schauenberg P, Härter G, Kern P, Modlin RL, Antoni C, Stenger S. Anti-TNF immunotherapy reduces CD8+ T cell-mediated antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans. J Clin Invest. 2009 May; 119(5):1167-77. PMID: 19381021.
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    90. Adams JS, Ren S, Liu PT, Chun RF, Lagishetty V, Gombart AF, Borregaard N, Modlin RL, Hewison M. Vitamin d-directed rheostatic regulation of monocyte antibacterial responses. J Immunol. 2009 Apr 01; 182(7):4289-95. PMID: 19299728.
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    91. Lee DJ, Modlin RL. DNA transportation authority. Nat Med. 2008 Dec; 14(12):1319-20. PMID: 19057557.
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    92. Krutzik SR, Hewison M, Liu PT, Robles JA, Stenger S, Adams JS, Modlin RL. IL-15 links TLR2/1-induced macrophage differentiation to the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway. J Immunol. 2008 Nov 15; 181(10):7115-20. PMID: 18981132.
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    93. Cruz D, Watson AD, Miller CS, Montoya D, Ochoa MT, Sieling PA, Gutierrez MA, Navab M, Reddy ST, Witztum JL, Fogelman AM, Rea TH, Eisenberg D, Berliner J, Modlin RL. Host-derived oxidized phospholipids and HDL regulate innate immunity in human leprosy. J Clin Invest. 2008 Aug; 118(8):2917-28. PMID: 18636118.
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    94. Liu PT, Modlin RL. Human macrophage host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Curr Opin Immunol. 2008 Aug; 20(4):371-6. PMID: 18602003.
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    95. Sieling PA, Hill PJ, Dobos KM, Brookman K, Kuhlman AM, Fabri M, Krutzik SR, Rea TH, Heaslip DG, Belisle JT, Modlin RL. Conserved mycobacterial lipoglycoproteins activate TLR2 but also require glycosylation for MHC class II-restricted T cell activation. J Immunol. 2008 May 01; 180(9):5833-42. PMID: 18424702.
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    96. Ochoa MT, Loncaric A, Krutzik SR, Becker TC, Modlin RL. "Dermal dendritic cells" comprise two distinct populations: CD1+ dendritic cells and CD209+ macrophages. J Invest Dermatol. 2008 Sep; 128(9):2225-31. PMID: 18337829.
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    97. Lee DJ, Sieling PA, Ochoa MT, Krutzik SR, Guo B, Hernandez M, Rea TH, Cheng G, Colonna M, Modlin RL. LILRA2 activation inhibits dendritic cell differentiation and antigen presentation to T cells. J Immunol. 2007 Dec 15; 179(12):8128-36. PMID: 18056355.
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    98. Bhandarkar SS, Cohen C, Kuruvila M, Rea TH, Mackelfresh JB, Lee DJ, Modlin RL, Arbiser JL. Angiogenesis in cutaneous lesions of leprosy: implications for treatment. Arch Dermatol. 2007 Dec; 143(12):1527-9. PMID: 18087002.
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    99. Adams JS, Chen H, Chun R, Ren S, Wu S, Gacad M, Nguyen L, Ride J, Liu P, Modlin R, Hewison M. Substrate and enzyme trafficking as a means of regulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D synthesis and action: the human innate immune response. J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec; 22 Suppl 2:V20-4. PMID: 18290716.
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    100. Miller LS, Pietras EM, Uricchio LH, Hirano K, Rao S, Lin H, O'Connell RM, Iwakura Y, Cheung AL, Cheng G, Modlin RL. Inflammasome-mediated production of IL-1beta is required for neutrophil recruitment against Staphylococcus aureus in vivo. J Immunol. 2007 Nov 15; 179(10):6933-42. PMID: 17982084.
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    101. Liu PT, Stenger S, Tang DH, Modlin RL. Cutting edge: vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the induction of cathelicidin. J Immunol. 2007 Aug 15; 179(4):2060-3. PMID: 17675463.
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    102. Adams JS, Liu PT, Chun R, Modlin RL, Hewison M. Vitamin D in defense of the human immune response. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Nov; 1117:94-105. PMID: 17656563.
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    103. Niazi KR, Ochoa MT, Sieling PA, Rooke NE, Peter AK, Mollahan P, Dickey M, Rabizadeh S, Rea TH, Modlin RL. Activation of human CD4+ T cells by targeting MHC class II epitopes to endosomal compartments using human CD1 tail sequences. Immunology. 2007 Dec; 122(4):522-31. PMID: 17635609.
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    104. Sieling PA, Legaspi A, Ochoa MT, Rea TH, Modlin RL. Regulation of human T-cell homing receptor expression in cutaneous bacterial infection. Immunology. 2007 Apr; 120(4):518-25. PMID: 17343614.
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    105. Miller LS, Modlin RL. Toll-like receptors in the skin. Semin Immunopathol. 2007 Apr; 29(1):15-26. PMID: 17621951.
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    106. Modlin R. The vitamin D receptor and its role in inflammation and host defence: interview with Dr Robert Modlin by Emma Quigley. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2007 Apr; 11(4):431-3. PMID: 17373873.
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    107. Hewison M, Burke F, Evans KN, Lammas DA, Sansom DM, Liu P, Modlin RL, Adams JS. Extra-renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in human health and disease. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Mar; 103(3-5):316-21. PMID: 17368179.
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    108. Schauber J, Dorschner RA, Coda AB, Büchau AS, Liu PT, Kiken D, Helfrich YR, Kang S, Elalieh HZ, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Bikle DD, Modlin RL, Gallo RL. Injury enhances TLR2 function and antimicrobial peptide expression through a vitamin D-dependent mechanism. J Clin Invest. 2007 Mar; 117(3):803-11. PMID: 17290304.
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    109. Liu PT, Krutzik SR, Modlin RL. Therapeutic implications of the TLR and VDR partnership. Trends Mol Med. 2007 Mar; 13(3):117-24. PMID: 17276732.
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    110. Miller LS, Modlin RL. Human keratinocyte Toll-like receptors promote distinct immune responses. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Feb; 127(2):262-3. PMID: 17228303.
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    111. Di Nardo A, Braff MH, Taylor KR, Na C, Granstein RD, McInturff JE, Krutzik S, Modlin RL, Gallo RL. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides block dendritic cell TLR4 activation and allergic contact sensitization. J Immunol. 2007 Feb 01; 178(3):1829-34. PMID: 17237433.
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    112. Winau F, Hegasy G, Weiskirchen R, Weber S, Cassan C, Sieling PA, Modlin RL, Liblau RS, Gressner AM, Kaufmann SH. Ito cells are liver-resident antigen-presenting cells for activating T cell responses. Immunity. 2007 Jan; 26(1):117-29. PMID: 17239632.
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    113. Sabet S, Ochoa MT, Sieling PA, Rea TH, Modlin RL. Functional characterization of a T-cell receptor BV6+ T-cell clone derived from a leprosy lesion. Immunology. 2007 Mar; 120(3):354-61. PMID: 17140401.
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    114. Chow EK, Castrillo A, Shahangian A, Pei L, O'Connell RM, Modlin RL, Tontonoz P, Cheng G. A role for IRF3-dependent RXRalpha repression in hepatotoxicity associated with viral infections. J Exp Med. 2006 Nov 27; 203(12):2589-602. PMID: 17074929.
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    115. Im JS, Tapinos N, Chae GT, Illarionov PA, Besra GS, DeVries GH, Modlin RL, Sieling PA, Rambukkana A, Porcelli SA. Expression of CD1d molecules by human schwann cells and potential interactions with immunoregulatory invariant NK T cells. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 15; 177(8):5226-35. PMID: 17015708.
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    116. Tan BH, Meinken C, Bastian M, Bruns H, Legaspi A, Ochoa MT, Krutzik SR, Bloom BR, Ganz T, Modlin RL, Stenger S. Macrophages acquire neutrophil granules for antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 01; 177(3):1864-71. PMID: 16849498.
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    117. Renn CN, Sanchez DJ, Ochoa MT, Legaspi AJ, Oh CK, Liu PT, Krutzik SR, Sieling PA, Cheng G, Modlin RL. TLR activation of Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells triggers an antiviral immune response. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 01; 177(1):298-305. PMID: 16785525.
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    118. Hornell TM, Burster T, Jahnsen FL, Pashine A, Ochoa MT, Harding JJ, Macaubas C, Lee AW, Modlin RL, Mellins ED. Human dendritic cell expression of HLA-DO is subset specific and regulated by maturation. J Immunol. 2006 Mar 15; 176(6):3536-47. PMID: 16517722.
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    119. Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H, Wenzel L, Tan BH, Krutzik SR, Ochoa MT, Schauber J, Wu K, Meinken C, Kamen DL, Wagner M, Bals R, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Gallo RL, Eisenberg D, Hewison M, Hollis BW, Adams JS, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science. 2006 Mar 24; 311(5768):1770-3. PMID: 16497887.
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    120. Miller LS, O'Connell RM, Gutierrez MA, Pietras EM, Shahangian A, Gross CE, Thirumala A, Cheung AL, Cheng G, Modlin RL. MyD88 mediates neutrophil recruitment initiated by IL-1R but not TLR2 activation in immunity against Staphylococcus aureus. Immunity. 2006 Jan; 24(1):79-91. PMID: 16413925.
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    121. Stegelmann F, Bastian M, Swoboda K, Bhat R, Kiessler V, Krensky AM, Roellinghoff M, Modlin RL, Stenger S. Coordinate expression of CC chemokine ligand 5, granulysin, and perforin in CD8+ T cells provides a host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol. 2005 Dec 01; 175(11):7474-83. PMID: 16301655.
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    122. McInturff JE, Wang SJ, Machleidt T, Lin TR, Oren A, Hertz CJ, Krutzik SR, Hart S, Zeh K, Anderson DH, Gallo RL, Modlin RL, Kim J. Granulysin-derived peptides demonstrate antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects against Propionibacterium acnes. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Aug; 125(2):256-63. PMID: 16098035.
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    123. Modlin RL, Sieling PA. Immunology. Now presenting: gammadelta T cells. Science. 2005 Jul 08; 309(5732):252-3. PMID: 16002604.
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    124. McInturff JE, Modlin RL, Kim J. The role of toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis and treatment of dermatological disease. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Jul; 125(1):1-8. PMID: 15982296.
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    125. Miller LS, Sørensen OE, Liu PT, Jalian HR, Eshtiaghpour D, Behmanesh BE, Chung W, Starner TD, Kim J, Sieling PA, Ganz T, Modlin RL. TGF-alpha regulates TLR expression and function on epidermal keratinocytes. J Immunol. 2005 May 15; 174(10):6137-43. PMID: 15879109.
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    126. Krutzik SR, Tan B, Li H, Ochoa MT, Liu PT, Sharfstein SE, Graeber TG, Sieling PA, Liu YJ, Rea TH, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. TLR activation triggers the rapid differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and dendritic cells. Nat Med. 2005 Jun; 11(6):653-60. PMID: 15880118.
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    127. Liu PT, Krutzik SR, Kim J, Modlin RL. Cutting edge: all-trans retinoic acid down-regulates TLR2 expression and function. J Immunol. 2005 Mar 01; 174(5):2467-70. PMID: 15728448.
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    128. Sieling PA, Torrelles JB, Stenger S, Chung W, Burdick AE, Rea TH, Brennan PJ, Belisle JT, Porcelli SA, Modlin RL. The human CD1-restricted T cell repertoire is limited to cross-reactive antigens: implications for host responses against immunologically related pathogens. J Immunol. 2005 Mar 01; 174(5):2637-44. PMID: 15728470.
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    129. Lee DJ, Modlin RL. Breaking tolerance--another piece added to the vitiligo puzzle. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Jan; 124(1):xiii-xv. PMID: 15654945.
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    130. Modlin RL, Cheng G. From plankton to pathogen recognition. Nat Med. 2004 Nov; 10(11):1173-4. PMID: 15516915.
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    131. Torrelles JB, Khoo KH, Sieling PA, Modlin RL, Zhang N, Marques AM, Treumann A, Rithner CD, Brennan PJ, Chatterjee D. Truncated structural variants of lipoarabinomannan in Mycobacterium leprae and an ethambutol-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Biol Chem. 2004 Sep 24; 279(39):41227-39. PMID: 15263002.
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    132. Hunger RE, Sieling PA, Ochoa MT, Sugaya M, Burdick AE, Rea TH, Brennan PJ, Belisle JT, Blauvelt A, Porcelli SA, Modlin RL. Langerhans cells utilize CD1a and langerin to efficiently present nonpeptide antigens to T cells. J Clin Invest. 2004 Mar; 113(5):701-8. PMID: 14991068.
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    133. Krutzik SR, Modlin RL. The role of Toll-like receptors in combating mycobacteria. Semin Immunol. 2004 Feb; 16(1):35-41. PMID: 14751762.
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    134. Winau F, Schwierzeck V, Hurwitz R, Remmel N, Sieling PA, Modlin RL, Porcelli SA, Brinkmann V, Sugita M, Sandhoff K, Kaufmann SH, Schaible UE. Saposin C is required for lipid presentation by human CD1b. Nat Immunol. 2004 Feb; 5(2):169-74. PMID: 14716313.
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    135. Doyle SE, O'Connell RM, Miranda GA, Vaidya SA, Chow EK, Liu PT, Suzuki S, Suzuki N, Modlin RL, Yeh WC, Lane TF, Cheng G. Toll-like receptors induce a phagocytic gene program through p38. J Exp Med. 2004 Jan 05; 199(1):81-90. PMID: 14699082.
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    136. Hertz CJ, Wu Q, Porter EM, Zhang YJ, Weismüller KH, Godowski PJ, Ganz T, Randell SH, Modlin RL. Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 on human tracheobronchial epithelial cells induces the antimicrobial peptide human beta defensin-2. J Immunol. 2003 Dec 15; 171(12):6820-6. PMID: 14662888.
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    137. Bleharski JR, Li H, Meinken C, Graeber TG, Ochoa MT, Yamamura M, Burdick A, Sarno EN, Wagner M, Röllinghoff M, Rea TH, Colonna M, Stenger S, Bloom BR, Eisenberg D, Modlin RL. Use of genetic profiling in leprosy to discriminate clinical forms of the disease. Science. 2003 Sep 12; 301(5639):1527-30. PMID: 12970564.
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    138. Schaible UE, Winau F, Sieling PA, Fischer K, Collins HL, Hagens K, Modlin RL, Brinkmann V, Kaufmann SH. Apoptosis facilitates antigen presentation to T lymphocytes through MHC-I and CD1 in tuberculosis. Nat Med. 2003 Aug; 9(8):1039-46. PMID: 12872166.
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    139. Walton KA, Cole AL, Yeh M, Subbanagounder G, Krutzik SR, Modlin RL, Lucas RM, Nakai J, Smart EJ, Vora DK, Berliner JA. Specific phospholipid oxidation products inhibit ligand activation of toll-like receptors 4 and 2. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Jul 01; 23(7):1197-203. PMID: 12775576.
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    140. Arora T, Liu B, He H, Kim J, Murphy TL, Murphy KM, Modlin RL, Shuai K. PIASx is a transcriptional co-repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 13; 278(24):21327-30. PMID: 12716907.
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    141. Krutzik SR, Ochoa MT, Sieling PA, Uematsu S, Ng YW, Legaspi A, Liu PT, Cole ST, Godowski PJ, Maeda Y, Sarno EN, Norgard MV, Brennan PJ, Akira S, Rea TH, Modlin RL. Activation and regulation of Toll-like receptors 2 and 1 in human leprosy. Nat Med. 2003 May; 9(5):525-32. PMID: 12692544.
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    142. Bleharski JR, Kiessler V, Buonsanti C, Sieling PA, Stenger S, Colonna M, Modlin RL. A role for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in host defense during the early-induced and adaptive phases of the immune response. J Immunol. 2003 Apr 01; 170(7):3812-8. PMID: 12646648.
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    143. Gansert JL, Kiessler V, Engele M, Wittke F, Röllinghoff M, Krensky AM, Porcelli SA, Modlin RL, Stenger S. Human NKT cells express granulysin and exhibit antimycobacterial activity. J Immunol. 2003 Mar 15; 170(6):3154-61. PMID: 12626573.
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    144. Oliveira RB, Ochoa MT, Sieling PA, Rea TH, Rambukkana A, Sarno EN, Modlin RL. Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 on human Schwann cells: a mechanism of nerve damage in leprosy. Infect Immun. 2003 Mar; 71(3):1427-33. PMID: 12595460.
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    145. Anderson DH, Sawaya MR, Cascio D, Ernst W, Modlin R, Krensky A, Eisenberg D. Granulysin crystal structure and a structure-derived lytic mechanism. J Mol Biol. 2003 Jan 10; 325(2):355-65. PMID: 12488100.
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    146. Sieling PA, Chung W, Duong BT, Godowski PJ, Modlin RL. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands as adjuvants for human Th1 responses. J Immunol. 2003 Jan 01; 170(1):194-200. PMID: 12496400.
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    147. Hertz CJ, Modlin RL. Role of toll-like receptors in response to bacterial infection. Contrib Microbiol. 2003; 10:149-63. PMID: 12530325.
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    148. Ochoa MT, Legaspi AJ, Hatziris Z, Godowski PJ, Modlin RL, Sieling PA. Distribution of Toll-like receptor 1 and Toll-like receptor 2 in human lymphoid tissue. Immunology. 2003 Jan; 108(1):10-5. PMID: 12519297.
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    149. Doyle S, Vaidya S, O'Connell R, Dadgostar H, Dempsey P, Wu T, Rao G, Sun R, Haberland M, Modlin R, Cheng G. IRF3 mediates a TLR3/TLR4-specific antiviral gene program. Immunity. 2002 Sep; 17(3):251-63. PMID: 12354379.
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    150. Kim J, Ochoa MT, Krutzik SR, Takeuchi O, Uematsu S, Legaspi AJ, Brightbill HD, Holland D, Cunliffe WJ, Akira S, Sieling PA, Godowski PJ, Modlin RL. Activation of toll-like receptor 2 in acne triggers inflammatory cytokine responses. J Immunol. 2002 Aug 01; 169(3):1535-41. PMID: 12133981.
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    151. Stenger S, Modlin RL. Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through mammalian Toll-like receptors. Curr Opin Immunol. 2002 Aug; 14(4):452-7. PMID: 12088679.
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    152. Niazi KR, Porcelli SA, Modlin RL. The CD1b structure: antigen presentation adapts to a high-fat diet. Nat Immunol. 2002 Aug; 3(8):703-4. PMID: 12145652.
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    153. Takeuchi O, Sato S, Horiuchi T, Hoshino K, Takeda K, Dong Z, Modlin RL, Akira S. Cutting edge: role of Toll-like receptor 1 in mediating immune response to microbial lipoproteins. J Immunol. 2002 Jul 01; 169(1):10-4. PMID: 12077222.
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    154. Modlin RL. Mammalian toll-like receptors. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002 Jun; 88(6):543-7; quiz 548-50, 583. PMID: 12086359.
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    156. Modlin RL. Learning from leprosy: insights into contemporary immunology from an ancient disease. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002 Jan-Feb; 15(1):1-6. PMID: 11803252.
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    157. Modlin RL, Bloom BR. Immunology. Chip shots--will functional genomics get functional? Science. 2001 Oct 26; 294(5543):799-801. PMID: 11679655.
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